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Plassenburg Castle

Plassenburg Castle


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Just over 100km north-east of Nuremburg, Plassenburg Castle is an iconic symbol of the city of Kulmbach and the massive fortress which was first mentioned in 1135 sits high above the city like a protective parent. Its first role was as a supporting fortress for the Meranian rulers of the Upper Main and Franconian Forest.

From the 12th century, the castle has been under the ownership of firstly the Plassenburg family who were ministerial of the counts of Andechs, then the noble Franconian family of Guttenberg and from 1338 to 1791, the Burgraves of Brandenburg, all members of dynastic House of Hohenzollern.

The castle was destroyed – razed to the ground – in 1554 at the end of the second Margravian War. Five years later, renowned German Renaissance architect Caspar Vischer was commissioned by Margrave Georg Friedrich von Brandenburg-Culmbach to create a masterpiece. He did, and it included the Schöne Hof – ‘Beautiful Courtyard’ – a magnificent arcaded space that included over 120 relief busts, many of which represented the Hohenzollern dynasty and is widely considered to be one of the stand-out examples of German Renaissance architecture.

In 1810 ownership of Plassenburg Castle passed to the state of Bavaria and has been used as a prison, a military hospital and a POW camp but today, it’s one of Bavaria’s most popular tourist sites as well as a venue for myriad cultural events.

The Frederick the Great Army Museum with a wonderful collection of Prussian military artefacts and paintings, the Hohenzollerns in Franconia Museum and the Margravial Rooms (including the gilt-canopied bed of Margravine Maria from c.1630) are outstanding but many visitors come to Plassenburg to see the German Pewter Figure Museum which houses over 300,000 figures as well as what is described as a ‘treasure of dioramas’.


Object description:

This massive fortress belonged from 1338 to 1791 to the Burgraves of Nuremberg and subsequent Margraves of Brandenburg, members of the Hohenzollern family. In 1559, Georg Friedrich von Ansbach commissioned Caspar Visher to build a four-winged complex. The Schöne Hof (Beautiful Courtyard), an arcaded courtyard richly decorated with relief work, is one of the finest examples of German Renaissance art.

Further highlights are the museum "The Hohenzollerns in Franconia", the "Frederick the Great Army Museum" (Windsheimer Collection) and the Margravial Rooms with historic pictures of the construction work, portraits of margraves and the gilt canopied bed of Margravine Maria (around 1630).


4.50 euros regular
3.50 euros reduced

Toilet for the disabled available
Margravial Rooms and museum "The Hohenzollerns in Franconia": only accessible via staircase
"Landschaftsmuseum Obermain": ground floor accessible, first floor only accessible via staircase
"Zinnfigurenmuseum": accessible for wheelchair users

Deutsches Zinnfigurenmuseum
(German Tin Figure Museum, run by the town of Kulmbach)

Landschaftsmuseum Obermain
(Museum of the Upper Main Region, run by the town of Kulmbach)


Plassenburg

Plassenburg Castle

Plassenburg Castle, first mentioned in 1135, is one of the most imposing fortress complexes in Germany. From 1338 to 1791 the property of the Hohenzollern, it links in exemplary fashion the properties of a defensive fortress with those of an elegant palace construction.
After it was destroyed during the Second Schmalkaldic War in 1554 the Plassenburg was rebuilt in the Renaissance style. The showpiece is the "Beautiful Courtyard", an impressive arcaded courtyard richly decorated with sculptural works.
Today the Plassenburg houses the "Plassenburg Castle State Collection" along with "The Hohenzollern in Franconia", a new museum currently under construction, the "Army Museum of Frederick the Great", the "Upper Main Landscape Museum" and the "German Pewter Figure Museum", the largest of its kind in the world.
The "Beautiful Courtyard" serves as a splendid open-air venue for concerts and theater in the summer. The castle tavern within the setting of the historical rooms serves food and drink to refresh body and soul. From its large terrace the visitor can enjoy a view of the old margrave city of Kulmbach.

Plassenburg
Schloss- und Gartenverwaltung Bayreuth-Eremitage
Festungsberg 26
95326 Kulmbach
Telefon +49 (0)92 21/ 82 20-0
Telefax +49 (0)92 21/ 82 20-26
[email protected]
www.schloesser-bayern.de

Die Burgenstraße e.V.
Allee 12
D-74072 Heilbronn


History [ edit | edit source ]

The Plassenburg was first mentioned in 1135, when it was described by Count Berthold II of Andechs as comes de Plassenberch. Presumably he was also the founder of the castle, which was built to the west of an earlier fortified farmstead. To begin with, the castle was a central supporting stronghold for the Meranian rulers of the Upper Main and Franconian Forest.

After the death of the last Andechs-Meranian, Duke Otto VIII, his brother-in-law divided his inheritance. The Plassenburg with Kulmbach, Berneck, Goldkronach, Wirsberg, Trebgast and Pretzendorf (now Himmelkron) went to Hermann III and Otto III, the Counts of Weimar-Orlamünde. Ώ] The two sons of Herman II (died 1247) and Beatrix of Andechs-Merania initially ruled together as "Lords of Plassenburg". After 1278 they divided the inheritance of their father, whereupon Otto III was given sole possession of the domain of Plassenburg and the territory around Weimar. Otto III died in 1285 and the Plassenburg appeared soon afterwards in the hands of his son Otto IV. His son in turn, Count Otto VI of Orlamünde, who was the only Orlamünde since 1323 who was described as "Lord of Plassenburg", pledged this lordship together with the Plassenburg, Kulmbach, Trebgast and Berneck in 1338 to Burgrave John II of Nuremberg. As a result, after Otto VI's death in 1340, Plassenburg fell to the burgraves of Nuremberg from the House of Hohenzollern.

Gradually, the Plassenburg developed into a new centre of power for the Hohenzollerns. At the time of Burgrave Frederick V of Nuremberg (who reigned 1357–1397), the Plassenburg had already outstripped the Cadolzburg - a traditional burgravial residence. In 1397 Burgrave Frederick V stepped down from the business of government and chose the Plassenburg as his retirement home. The Hohenzollerns' territory in Franconia was divided between his sons, John III and Frederick VI, later to be the Elector of Brandenburg, in accordance with the Dispositio Fridericiana of 1385. Thus the Plassenburg became the centre of power for the so-called Principality of the Mountains (Fürstentum ob dem Gebirg), later the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. After the death of John III in 1420, his estate fell to his brother, Frederick, who, in 1421, created the office of "Captain of the Mountains" to rule his domain. Plassenburg remained the administrative centre of this hilly principality until after the middle of the 16th century.

The internment of the Countess Barbara of Brandenburg in March 1493, began the sad chapter of Plassenburg as a family prison. This reached a peak in February 1515 when Margrave Casimir of Brandenburg locked up his father, Margrave Frederick the Elder of Brandenburg, in a tower room at Plassenburg which he could not leave for 12 years. In 1542 Margrave Albrecht Alcibiades moved the Residenz for the first time from Plassenburg, which continued to serve primarily as a country fortress, to Bayreuth.


History [ edit | edit source ]

The Plassenburg was first mentioned in 1135, when it was described by Count Berthold II of Andechs as comes de Plassenberch. Presumably he was also the founder of the castle, which was built to the west of an earlier fortified farmstead. To begin with, the castle was a central supporting stronghold for the Meranian rulers of the Upper Main and Franconian Forest.

After the death of the last Andechs-Meranian, Duke Otto VIII, his brother-in-law divided his inheritance. The Plassenburg with Kulmbach, Berneck, Goldkronach, Wirsberg, Trebgast and Pretzendorf (now Himmelkron) went to Hermann III and Otto III, the Counts of Weimar-Orlamünde. Ώ] The two sons of Herman II (died 1247) and Beatrix of Andechs-Merania initially ruled together as "Lords of Plassenburg". After 1278 they divided the inheritance of their father, whereupon Otto III was given sole possession of the domain of Plassenburg and the territory around Weimar. Otto III died in 1285 and the Plassenburg appeared soon afterwards in the hands of his son Otto IV. His son in turn, Count Otto VI of Orlamünde, who was the only Orlamünde since 1323 who was described as "Lord of Plassenburg", pledged this lordship together with the Plassenburg, Kulmbach, Trebgast and Berneck in 1338 to Burgrave John II of Nuremberg. As a result, after Otto VI's death in 1340, Plassenburg fell to the burgraves of Nuremberg from the House of Hohenzollern.

Gradually, the Plassenburg developed into a new centre of power for the Hohenzollerns. At the time of Burgrave Frederick V of Nuremberg (who reigned 1357–1397), the Plassenburg had already outstripped the Cadolzburg - a traditional burgravial residence. In 1397 Burgrave Frederick V stepped down from the business of government and chose the Plassenburg as his retirement home. The Hohenzollerns' territory in Franconia was divided between his sons, John III and Frederick VI, later to be the Elector of Brandenburg, in accordance with the Dispositio Fridericiana of 1385. Thus the Plassenburg became the centre of power for the so-called Principality of the Mountains (Fürstentum ob dem Gebirg), later the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. After the death of John III in 1420, his estate fell to his brother, Frederick, who, in 1421, created the office of "Captain of the Mountains" to rule his domain. Plassenburg remained the administrative centre of this hilly principality until after the middle of the 16th century.

The internment of the Countess Barbara of Brandenburg in March 1493, began the sad chapter of Plassenburg as a family prison. This reached a peak in February 1515 when Margrave Casimir of Brandenburg locked up his father, Margrave Frederick the Elder of Brandenburg, in a tower room at Plassenburg which he could not leave for 12 years. In 1542 Margrave Albrecht Alcibiades moved the Residenz for the first time from Plassenburg, which continued to serve primarily as a country fortress, to Bayreuth.


Plassenburg

Plassenburg is a castle in the city of Kulmbach in Bavaria. It is one of the most impressive castles in Germany and a symbol of the city. It was first mentioned in 1135. The Plassenberg family were ministerial of the counts of Andechs (later the dukes of Andechs-Meranien) and used as their seat the Plassenburg. The House of Guttenberg, a prominent Franconian noble family, traces its origins back to 1149 with a Gundeloh v. Blassenberg (Plassenberg). The name Guttenberg is derived from Guttenberg and was adopted by a Heinrich von Blassenberg around 1310. From 1340, the Hohenzollerns governed from Plassenburg castle their territories in Franconia till 1604. The Plassenburg was fortress and residence for the Hohenzollerns.

It was destroyed in 1554 at the end of the second Margravian war (1552–1554) of margrave Albert Alcibiades. The Plassenburg was later rebuilt by the architect Caspar Vischer as an impressive stronghold and as a huge palace. In 1792, Margrave Alexander sold the Plassenburg to his cousin, the King of Prussia. A combined Bavarian and French army under the command of Jérôme Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon, besieged the Plassenburg in 1806. In 1810, Kulmbach became Bavarian and the castle was used as a prison and as a military hospital. During the second world war, the Organisation Todt used the Plassenburg as a training camp and recreation home. Today, it is a museum and a venue for cultural events.

It contains a significant collection of Prussian military artifacts and portraits.


History

Origin

The Lords of Plassenberg (also Blassenberg ) belonged to the ministry of the Counts of Andechs and later Dukes of Andechs-Meranien and named themselves after their official seat, the Plassenburg ob Kulmbach . Six different ministerials from Plassenberg appear in the two first mentioning documents issued around 1158: "Gundeloh" and his two sons "Gundeloh and Friedrich", "Nentwich von Blassenberc" and his son "Eberhard" and "Otgoz von Blassenberc". The current research opinion, coined by Franz Karl and Erich von Guttenberg , distinguishes two lines that were not originally tribe-related: The Plassenbergers with the rose seal and the Plassenbergers with a recessed tip in the seal image. Klaus Rupprecht counters this construct with a new thesis: “As families who later have a point in their coat of arms, the Künßberg , Weidenberg and Bayreuth appear as ministerials at the time of the Dukes of Andechs-Meranien . It is entirely conceivable that they are not descended from the Plassenberg-Nentwich tribe - as the two researchers from Guttenberg show - but that a branch of them, probably primarily the Weidenberg for reasons of ownership, as the successor to the Plassenberg with the rose, the had used the Andechs-Merano War of Succession to become independent and for a temporary change of front, were deployed as castle men on the Plassenburg under the Counts of Orlamünde and then also named themselves after their new service castle of Plassenberg. "

Rose seal

The Plassenbergers with the rose seal held a prominent position among the Franconian ministerials of the Andechs-Meranier. Eberhard I. von Plassenberg was iudex provinicialis from 1207 to 1217, i.e. district judge and thus deputy of his ducal lord in Radenzgau . He was succeeded in this office by his son Friedrich III, who appeared as a judge from 1223 to 1231, and was given the nickname dives , i.e. the rich, in 1218 and 1221 . Under the last Andechs-Meranier Otto VIII. Willebrand von Plassenberg, Friedrich's son, held the office of trustee at the ducal court. Before the middle of the 13th century, the Plassenberg family shared the rose seal: in 1239 and 1244, Ramung von Plassenberg's sons Albert and Ramung appeared for the first time with the surname galliculus . The nickname Henlin or Henlein became a kind of family name for their descendants.

Home country

The oldest possession of the Plassenbergers can be assumed to be where both tribes find each other wealthy. This property is concentrated in the area around Kulmbach, in an easterly direction with free float up to Kupferberg and in a westerly direction to the old Würzburg original parish of Melkendorf . At Melkendorf, above the confluence of the White and Red Main rivers , the probable headquarters of the Plassenbergers with the rose seal can be found: Steinenhausen Castle .

Probably already the Andechs-Meranischen Truchsessen Willebrand von Plassenberg had succeeded in the middle of the 13th century to acquire a small but almost closed rulership complex near Untersteinach from the Walpoten , in which his grandson Eberhard III. around 1315 built Guttenberg Castle. This made him the progenitor of the barons von und zu Guttenberg, who are still in bloom today.

Veit Henlein, who was enfeoffed by the Margraves of Brandenburg with the Steinenhausen castle stable in 1475 and 1487, took the name of Guttenberg because of "the same parentage, the same helmet and shield with the Blassenberg-Guttenberg". It appears for the first time in 1499 as "Veyt von Guttenberg, called Henlein". Only after 1544 does the nickname Henlein disappear completely and the line is called "Guttenberg- Kirchleus " from then on . The Blassenbergers with the pointed seal can still be traced into the Thirty Years' War, but they died out soon after 1632.

Eckersdorf

The Lords of Plassenberg acquired their first goods in Eckersdorf in 1420 , which they owned in full a hundred years later. Grave slabs and an epitaph in the church in Gleiritsch also bear witness to the Plassenberg family. Towards the end of the 15th century (1498) Götz von Plassenberg became captain and caretaker in Neunburg vorm Wald and Christoph von Plassenberg received the post of district judge in Amberg in 1556.

In Biedermann: Gender Register , Volume 5, Plate 342 , Lorenz von Plassenberg is named as Landsasse on "Glayritz" (today: Gleiritsch , municipality in the district of Schwandorf ). He also had other goods in Eckersdorf (Markgraftum Bayreuth) and St. Gilgenberg. The property of Lorenz von Plassenberg, who had four sons in addition to two daughters, Margaretha and Sybilla von Plassenberg, was divided between his heirs Georg Leo, Paulus Lorenz, Götz Siegemund and Christoph Jacob von Plassenberg. The latter "Christoff Jacob of Plassenberg to Gleuratsch" first mentioned in 1550 Country aces register . On September 25, 1559, Elector Friedrich III enfeoffed him . from the Palatinate "with the burklein Plassenberg and associated goods". Four grave slabs in the Expositurkirche Maria Magdalena, Gleiritsch remind of the noble family of Plassenberg.

After the Plassenbergs died out, Eckersdorf and Donndorf came to the Lords of Lüchau in 1552, until they fell to the Margraviate of Bayreuth in 1757 . In the St. Giles Church are the grave times of Hans von Plassenberg of 1511 and of Margaret of Plassenberg of the 1570th


Germany’s Castle Road Is Leading Through German History

Germany’s Castle Road (German: Burgenstrasse) begins at Mannheim in the Neckar River Valley. Before leaving Germany it takes in the forested slopes of the Odenwald, the vast expanses of the Hohenloher Ebene, the medieval glories of Frankenhöhe, and the romance of Franconian Switzerland.

Mannheim, at the confluence of the Rhine and Neckar Rivers, is built around the Kurfürstliches Residenzschloss. The largest Baroque palace in all of Germany, it set the standard for the Castle Road attractions to come! Here is a handful of the most notable:

On the Neckar southeast of Mannheim is Schwetzingen. Its Schwetzingen Castle, with formal gardens in Baroque, rococo, and English landscape designs, also has six restaurants and a brewery on its Castle Square alone (not to miss the other approx. 596 restaurants throughout the town)!

Then Heidelberg, about 2 miles/3 km northeast of Schwetzingen, is considered one of Germany’s most romantic cities. Its most famous monument to Romanticism is the magnificent Heidelberg Castle complex.

This red sandstone behemoth, set on a bluff overlooking the town, took over four centuries to complete, as its eclectic architectural styles reveal! Roman gods vie for recognition with Christian saints in the Otto-Heinrich Wing, and in the cellar is the world’s largest wine barrel, the Heidelberg Tun!

After Heidelberg continue on along the Neckar up to Neckargemünd and its Bergfeste Dilsberg, a castle from the 12th century overlooking the Neckar valley.

Next step on our Castle Road tour? The village of Neckarsteinach, which has four castles, including the “Swallow’s Nest.” It could not be constructed until part of the face of the mountain on which it sits was carved away to make room for it!

Above the Neckar-side town of Hirschhorn is the 12th-century Knight’s Castle (Ritterschloss), where the restaurant terrace offers a splendid view of the river and town.

Heading south, the Castle Road passes one of the Neckar Valley’s oldest (and best preserved) castles in Haßmersheim. Guttenberg Castle, with its Falcon Center, has remained in the same family since the mid-15th century!

Advancing further towards west, you’ll find no better example of a medieval spa than Bad Wimpfen, where the enormous imperial palace’s red and blue towers loom over steep cobblestoned streets.

The Castle Road is now in wine country. The 10th-century castle ruins on a hill overlooking the town of Weinsberg are those of one of Germany’s oldest noble residences. Adelheid, Emperor Konrad II’s mother, lived here.

Langenburg Castle, in Langenburg in the Schwäbisch Hall district, has also remained in the same family for centuries — since 1226, to be exact. Its Baroque gardens are frequently open to the public.

Although it lacks a castle, the walled town of Rothenburg ob der Tauber is considered the purest example of German Romanticism. A stroll through its Plönlein (Little Square) erases five centuries of German history!

The Castle of the Margraves lords it over the town of Ansbach southeast of Rothenburg. It began as a simple moated castle before being transformed into a gem of rococo opulence in the 1500s.

The Imperial Nuremberg Castle in Nuremberg, the next stop on our Castle Road tour, is worthy of the historic city at its feet, serving between 1050 and 1571 as a part-time residence for all of Germany’s emperors. Its Sinwell Tower provides a panoramic outlook of the city.

Plassenburg Castle, with its collection of 300,000 tin soldiers perpetually engaged in battles from the pages of German history, watches over the Franconian town of Kulmbach. The people of Kulmbach consume more beer per capita than the people of any other town on Earth! Is there a connection?

Bayreuth, the city so entwined in the life of Richard Wagner, is our last stop on the German Castle Road. Its 18th-century rococo New Palace (Neues Schloss) was the city home of the Margravine Wilhelmine. The ceiling of its Cabinet of Fragmented Mirrors takes rococo to an entirely new place!


Watch the video: Castles and fortresses in Greece - Κάστρα στην Ελλάδα (January 2023).

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