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June 4, 2017 Day 136 of the First Year
6:45PM THE PRESIDENT and THE FIRST LADY depart the White House en route to Ford’s Theatre
In-Town Travel Pool (Final Gather 6:15PM – Palm Room Doors)
7:00PM THE PRESIDENT and THE FIRST LADY attend the Ford’s Theatre Reception
8:25PM THE PRESIDENT gives remarks at the Ford’s Theatre Reception
Historical Events on June 3
- After 5-month siege during the First Crusade, the Crusaders seize Antioch French scholar Peter Abelard is found guilty of heresy Treaty of Novgorod delineates borders between Russia and Norway in Finnmark Peace of Ath signed (in modern Belgium), settles Brabant succession
Hernando de Soto's Expedition lands in Florida
Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto lands on the coast of Florida, somewhere between present-day Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor
Event of Interest
1540 Hernando de Soto crosses the Appalachian Mountains, 1st European to do so
- Construction of the oldest stone church in French North America, Notre-Dame-des-Anges, begins at Quebec City, Quebec, Canada Dutch West India Company (WIC) receives charter for The West Indies (The Americas, Caribbean and West Africa) Pope Alexander VII appoints François de Laval vicar apostolic in New France Duke of York (future James II) defeats Dutch fleet off the coast of Lowestoft Amsterdam establishes municipal postal service Moscow houses and churches destroyed by fire Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo founded in California
Event of Interest
1781 Jack Jouett rides to warn Thomas Jefferson of British attack
- US army officially established by Congress of the Confederation Explorer Alexander Mackenzie sets out on his first expedition to the Pacific from Fort Chipewyan (finds the Arctic Ocean instead) Maratha Wars between British and Maratha Confederacy in India ends 4th national black convention meets (Philadelphia) 1st baseball uniforms worn when the NY Knickerbockers wear a uniform of straw hats, white shirts and blue long trousers Cullen Whipple patents a machine for making screws Comanche, Iowa, completely destroyed by one of a series of tornadoes 1st American Civil War land battle: Union forces defeat the Confederacy at Philippi in modern-day West Virginia
Victory in Battle
1864 General Robert E. Lee wins his last victory of Civil War at Battle of Cold Harbor
Event of Interest
1871 Jesse James & his gang robs Obocock Bank (Corydon Iowa), of $15,000
- Lacrosse introduced in Britain and Canada John Lynch (R-MS) chosen 1st black major-party national convention chair 24 Christians burn to death in Namgongo, Uganda Baseball poem "Casey at the Bat" 1st published by the San Francisco Examiner The Canadian Pacific Railway is completed from coast to coast
Event of Interest
1896 British naval officer David Beatty is seconded to the Egyptian government and appointed second in command of the river flotilla
Event of Interest
1899 W. G. Grace's last day of Test cricket aged 50 yrs 320 days
- Belgian King Leopold II claims Congo as his private possession Centro Escolar University is established by Librada Avelino and Carmen de Luna in Manila, Philippines "Come Josephine in My Flying Machine" record by Fred Fisher and Alfred Bryan, sung by Ada Jones and Billy Murray hits #1
- Goodyear airship "Pilgrim" makes the first with an enclosed cabin 1st trade show at Atlantic City Convention Center (electric light) Chile and Peru sign the Treaty of Lima, finally resolving their border dispute from the War of the Pacific (1879–83). Chile keeps Arica and Peru regains Tacna. French Championships Men's Tennis: René Lacoste wins his 3rd French title, beating fellow Frenchman Jean Borotra 6-3, 2-6, 6-0, 2-6, 8-6
French Open Women's Tennis
1929 French Championship Women's Tennis: Defending champion Helen Wills Moody beats Simonne Mathieu 6-3, 6-4
- Grover Cleveland Alexander is released by the Phillies John McGraw, who came to NY in 1902, resigns as manager of Giants
1932 MLBs Lou Gehrig is 1st to hit 4 consecutive HRs Yanks beat A's 20-13
Event of Interest
1932 Paul von Hindenburg disbands German Parliament
1933 Pope Pius XI encyclical "On oppression of the Church in Spain"
- French liner SS Normandie sets Atlantic crossing record of four days, three hours and 14 minutes on her maiden voyage
Miracle of Dunkirk
1940 Last British and French troops evacuated from Dunkirk
- Attack on telephone exchange in Schiphol German occupiers stamp "J" on Jewish passports United Nations Relief & Rehabilitation Administration forms
Zoot Suit Riots
1943 A mob of 60 from the Los Angeles Naval Reserve Armory beat up everyone perceived to be Hispanic, starting the week-long Zoot Suit Riots
- 76th Belmont: G L Smith riding Bounding Home wins in 2:32.2 Generals Giraud & de Gaulle reach agreement on constitution Nazis pull out of Rome 1st bikini bathing suit displayed (Paris) International Military Tribunal opens in Tokyo against 28 Japanese war criminals
Event of Interest
1947 British Viceroy of India Lord Mountbatten visits Pakistan
1948 Musical "Sleepy Hollow", based on Washington Irving's novel, opens at St James Theater, NYC runs for 12 performances
- 200" (5.08 m) Hale telescope dedicated at Palomar Observatory Korczak Ziolkowski begins sculpture of Crazy Horse near Mt Rushmore 1st African American to graduate from US Naval Academy (Wesley Anthony Brown)
Event of Interest
- 3rd class travel on British Railways ends KGUN TV channel 9 in Tucson, AZ (ABC) begins broadcasting Referendum allows city to sell Chavez Ravine to the Dodgers 1st US Air Force Academy graduation in Colorado Springs, Colorado
1959 US President Eisenhower routes Canadian premier Diefenbaker a message off the Moon
- Singapore adopts constitution European Cup Final, Stuttgart: Real Madrid beats Stade de Reims, 2-0 4th consecutive title for Los Blancos "Wildcat" closes at Alvin Theater NYC after 172 performances 93rd Belmont: Braulio Baeza aboard Sherluck wins in 2:29.2
Meeting of Interest
1961 JFK & Khrushchev meet in Vienna
Event of Interest
1962 Lee Harvey Oswald arrives by train in Oldenzaal, Netherlands
- WBKO TV channel 13 in Bowling Green, KY (ABC) begins broadcasting A Northwest Airlines DC-7 crashes in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of British Columbia, killing 101
Event of Interest
1964 Ringo Starr collapses from tonsillitis and pharyngitis
- Gemini 4 launched 2nd US 2-man flight (McDivitt & White) mission included 1st US spacewalk 1st US Space walk made by NASA astronaut Ed White during the Gemini 4 mission (23 minutes) European DX Council forms in Copenhagen (shortwave listeners) Gemini 9 launched 7th US 2-man flight (Stafford & Cernan) 99th Belmont: Bill Shoemaker aboard Damascus wins in 2:28.8
#1 in the Charts
French Open Men's Tennis
1967 French Championships Men's Tennis: Roy Emerson bests fellow Australian Tony Roche, 6-1, 6-4, 2-6, 6-2 for his 12th, and final, Grand Slam title
- French Championships Women's Tennis: Local favourite Françoise Dürr beats Lesley Turner of Australia, 4-6, 6-3, 6-4 Canada announces it will replace silver with nickel in coins Poor Peoples March on Washington, D.C. Yanks turn 21st triple-play in their history lose 4-3 to Twins
1968 American radical feminist Valerie Solanas attempts to assassinate Andy Warhol by shooting him three times. She is later diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and pleads guilty to "reckless assault with intent to harm", serving a 3 year sentence.
The company was created as a result of what Jeff Bezos called his "regret minimization framework", which described his efforts to fend off any regrets for not participating sooner in the Internet business boom during that time.  In 1994, Bezos left his employment as vice-president of D. E. Shaw & Co., a Wall Street firm, and moved to Seattle, Washington, where he began to work on a business plan  for what would become Amazon.com.
On July 5, 1994, Bezos initially incorporated the company in Washington state with the name Cadabra, Inc.  After a few months he changed the name to Amazon.com, Inc, because a lawyer misheard its original name as "cadaver".  In its early days, the company was operated out of the garage of Bezos's house on Northeast 28th Street in Bellevue, Washington.  In September 1994, Bezos purchased the domain name relentless.com and briefly considered naming his online store Relentless, but friends told him the name sounded a bit weird. The domain is still owned by Bezos and still redirects to the retailer. 
Bezos selected the name by looking through a dictionary he settled on "Amazon" because it was a place that was "exotic and different", just as he had envisioned for his Internet enterprise. The Amazon River, he noted, was the biggest river in the world, and he planned to make his store the biggest bookstore in the world.  Additionally, a name that began with "A" was preferred because it would probably be at the top of an alphabetized list.  Bezos placed a premium on his head start in building a brand and told a reporter, "There's nothing about our model that can't be copied over time. But you know, McDonald's got copied. And it's still built a huge, multibillion-dollar company. A lot of it comes down to the brand name. Brand names are more important online than they are in the physical world." 
After reading a report about the future of the Internet that projected annual web commerce growth at 2,300%, Bezos created a list of 20 products that could be marketed online. He narrowed the list to what he felt were the five most promising products, which included: compact discs, computer hardware, computer software, videos, and books. Bezos finally decided that his new business would sell books online, because of the large worldwide demand for literature, the low unit price for books, and the huge number of titles available in print.  Amazon was founded in the garage of Bezos' rented home in Bellevue, Washington.    Bezos' parents invested almost $250,000 in the start-up. 
In July 1995, Amazon opens as an online bookseller, selling the world's largest collection of books to anyone with World Wide Web access.  The first book sold on Amazon.com was Douglas Hofstadter's Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought.  In the first two months of business, Amazon sold to all 50 states and over 45 countries. Within two months, Amazon's sales were up to $20,000/week.  In October 1995, the company announced itself to the public.  In 1996, it was reincorporated in Delaware. Amazon issued its initial public offering of stock on May 15, 1997, at $18 per share, trading under the NASDAQ stock exchange symbol AMZN. 
Barnes & Noble sued Amazon on May 12, 1997, alleging that Amazon's claim to be "the world's largest bookstore" was false because it ". wasn't a bookstore at all. It's a book broker." The suit was later settled out of court and Amazon continued to make the same claim.  Walmart sued Amazon on October 16, 1998, alleging that Amazon had stolen Walmart's trade secrets by hiring former Walmart executives. Although this suit was also settled out of court, it caused Amazon to implement internal restrictions and the reassignment of the former Walmart executives. 
In 1999, Amazon first attempted to enter the publishing business by buying a defunct imprint, "Weathervane", and publishing some books "selected with no apparent thought", according to The New Yorker. The imprint quickly vanished again, and as of 2014 [update] Amazon representatives said that they had never heard of it.  Also in 1999, Time magazine named Bezos the Person of the Year when it recognized the company's success in popularizing online shopping. 
Since June 19, 2000, Amazon's logotype has featured a curved arrow leading from A to Z, representing that the company carries every product from A to Z, with the arrow shaped like a smile. 
According to sources, Amazon did not expect to make a profit for four to five years. This comparatively slow growth caused stockholders to complain that the company was not reaching profitability fast enough to justify their investment or even survive in the long term. In 2001, the dot-com bubble burst destroyed many e-companies in the process, but Amazon survived and moved forward beyond the tech crash to become a huge player in online sales. The company finally turned its first profit in the fourth quarter of 2001: .01 (i.e., 1¢ per share), on revenues of more than $1 billion. This profit margin, though extremely modest, proved to skeptics that Bezos' unconventional business model could succeed.  
In 2011, Amazon had 30,000 full-time employees in the US, and by the end of 2016, it had 180,000 employees. [ citation needed ]
In 2014, Amazon launched the Fire Phone. The Fire Phone was meant to deliver media streaming options but the venture failed, resulting in Amazon registering a $170 million loss. This would also lead to the Fire Phone production being stopped the following year. In August of the same year, Amazon would finalize the acquisition of Twitch, a social video gaming streaming site for $970 million. This new acquisition would be integrated into the game production division of Amazon.
In June 2017, Amazon announced that it would acquire Whole Foods, a high-end supermarket chain with over 400 stores, for $13.4 billion.   The acquisition was seen by media experts as a move to strengthen its physical holdings and challenge Walmart's supremacy as a brick and mortar retailer. This sentiment was heightened by the fact that the announcement coincided with Walmart's purchase of men's apparel company Bonobos.  On August 23, 2017, Whole Foods shareholders, as well as the Federal Trade Commission, approved the deal.  
In September 2017, Amazon announced plans to locate a second headquarters in a metropolitan area with at least a million people.  Cities needed to submit their presentations by October 19, 2017 for the project called HQ2.  The $5 billion second headquarters, starting with 500,000 square feet and eventually expanding to as much as 8 million square feet, may have as many as 50,000 employees.  In 2017, Amazon announced it would build a new downtown Seattle building with space for Mary's Place, a local charity in 2020. 
As 2017 came to a close, Amazon had over 566,000 employees worldwide.  
According to an August 8, 2018 story in Bloomberg Businessweek, Amazon has about a 5 percent share of US retail spending (excluding cars and car parts and visits to restaurants and bars), and a 43.5 share of American online spending in 2018. The forecast is for Amazon to own 49 percent of the total American online spending in 2018, with two-thirds of Amazon's revenue coming from the US. 
Amazon launched the last-mile delivery program and ordered 20,000 Mercedes-Benz Sprinter Vans for the service in September 2018.  
To make data transfers from space cheaper and easier Amazon added 12 antennas for the satellite data in November 2018. 
Amazon will generate $258.22 billion in US retail e-commerce sales this year, [ when? ] up 29.2% over last year. Amazon's Marketplace sales will represent an increasingly dominant portion of its e-commerce business—68.0% this year, compared with 32.0% for Amazon direct sales. By the end of 2018, sales generated from Amazon's Marketplace will be more than double that of Amazon's direct sales in the US. 
In November 2018, Amazon announced it would open its highly sought-after new headquarters, known as (HQ2) in Long Island City, Queens, New York City,   and in the Crystal City neighborhood of Arlington, Virginia.  On February 14, 2019, Amazon announced it was not moving forward with plans to build HQ2 in Queens  but would instead focus solely on the Arlington location. The company plans to locate at least 25,000 employees at HQ2 by 2030 and will invest more than US$2.5 billion  to establish its new headquarters in Crystal City as well as neighboring Pentagon City and Potomac Yard, an area jointly marketed as "National Landing." The announcement also created a new partnership with Virginia Tech to develop a revolutionary Innovation Campus to fill demand for high-tech talent in National Landing and beyond.
At the end of March 2020, some workers of the Staten Island warehouse staged a walkout in protest the poor health situation at their workplace amidst the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. One of the organizers, Chris Smalls, was first put on quarantine without anybody else being quarantined, and soon afterwards fired from the company.     
The pandemic caused a surge in online shopping and resulted in shortages of household staples both online and some brick-and-mortar stores. From March 17  to April 10, 2020,  Amazon warehouses stopped accepting non-essential items from third-party sellers. The company hired approximately 175,000 additional warehouse workers and delivery contractors to deal with the surge, and temporarily raised wages by $2/hour. 
Acquisition of MGM Edit
After months of speculation due to MGM's poor financial performance from the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on the movie industry, Amazon entered negotiations to acquire MGM at an estimated $9 billion in May 2021.  The companies agreed to the merger deal on May 26, 2021 for a total value of $8.45 billion , subject to regulatory approval. The deal would allow Amazon to add the MGM library to the Amazon Prime Video catalog, with the studio continuing to operate as a label under the new parent company. 
On January 22, 2018, Amazon Go, a store that uses cameras and sensors to detect items that a shopper grabs off shelves and automatically charges a shopper's Amazon account, was opened to the general public in Seattle.   Customers scan their Amazon Go app as they enter, and are required to have an Amazon Go app installed on their smartphone and a linked Amazon account to be able to enter.  The technology is meant to eliminate the need for checkout lines.    Amazon Go was initially opened for Amazon employees in December 2016.    By the end of 2018, there will be 8 total Amazon Go stores located in Seattle, Chicago, San Francisco and New York. 
Amazon announced to debut the Amazon 4-star in New York, Soho neighborhood Spring Street between Crosby and Lafayette on 27 September 2018. The store carries 4-star and above-rated products from around New York.  The Amazon website searches for the most rated, highly demanded, frequently bought, and most wished for products which are then sold in the new Amazon store under separate categories. Along with the paper price tags, the online review cards will also be available for the customers to read before buying the product.  
Amazon has grown through several mergers and acquisitions.
The company has also invested in a number of growing firms, both in the United States and internationally.   In 2014, Amazon purchased top level domain .buy in auction for over $4 million.   The company has invested in brands that offer a wide range of services and products, including Engine Yard, a Ruby-on-Rails platform as a service company,  and Living Social, a local deal site. 
The March for Science
On Earth Day (April 22) 2017, roughly 100,000 people marched on Washington, D.C., in a non-partisan rally to celebrate science and promote making policy decisions using scientific evidence &mdash particularly on issues like climate change and public health. Like the Women's March, the March for Science was inspired by the election of President Trump. Trump had previously called climate change a hoax and promised to withdraw the U.S. from the Paris Agreement on global climate mitigation, abolish anti-pollution regulations put in place by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and cut federal funding for numerous science and research agencies, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Marches for Science were held in more than 600 cities around the world on Earth Day 2017, drawing a global attendance of more than 1 million people, according to the organizers.
The most common (Federal) holidays of the United States (USA) in 2017 are listed below.
|Date||Holiday||Day||Days to go|
|January 1, 2017||New Year's Day||Sunday||-|
|January 16, 2017||Martin Luther King Day||Monday||-|
|January 24, 2017||Belly Laugh Day||Tuesday||-|
|February 2, 2017||Groundhog Day||Thursday||-|
|February 12, 2017||Lincoln's Birthday||Sunday||-|
|February 14, 2017||Valentine's Day||Tuesday||-|
|February 20, 2017||Presidents Day and Washington's Birthday||Monday||-|
|February 28, 2017||Mardi Gras Carnival |
See more holidays in other years, click on one of the links below or view the 2017 calendar.
I grew up in West Virginia, many miles from the site of the first Juneteenth, and I never heard of the holiday until I went off to college. But I have come to see the beauty in its unexpected past and persistence. Besides, June 19 is generally a more comfortable day for outdoor family fun — for fine jazz music and barbecue — than Jan. 1, a day short on sunlight. In my article “Should Blacks Collect Racist Memorabilia?” I quoted W.E.B. Du Bois’ summation of Black Reconstruction: “The slave went free stood a brief moment in the sun then moved back again toward slavery.” At the time I failed to appreciate just how apt a description it was.
Of all Emancipation Day observances, Juneteenth falls closest to the summer solstice (this Friday, June 21), the longest day of the year, when the sun, at its zenith, defies the darkness in every state, including those once shadowed by slavery. By choosing to celebrate the last place in the South that freedom touched — reflecting the mystical glow of history and lore, memory and myth, as Ralph Ellison evoked in his posthumous novel, Juneteenth — we remember the shining promise of emancipation, along with the bloody path America took by delaying it and deferring fulfillment of those simple, unanticipating words in Gen. Granger’s original order No. 3: that “This involves an absolute equality of personal rights and rights of property between former masters and slaves.”
My hope this Juneteenth is that we never forget it.
Fifty of the 100 Amazing Facts will be published on The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross website. Read all 100 Facts on The Root.
Juneteenth: Our Other Independence Day
Since this article was first published in 2011, Juneteenth celebrations have attracted increased attention around the nation. According to the National Juneteenth Observance Foundation, 45 states and the District of Columbia had, by 2017, passed legislation officially recognizing the holiday. Last year, protests across the country that arose after the murder of George Floyd brought renewed attention to the holiday.
Amid all of this, not to mention the COVID-19 pandemic that has disproportionately affected the country's black population, Americans have even more reasons to continue learning about the roots of racism in American history. We must confront the great contradiction in our past—that a “nation conceived in liberty” was also born in shackles.
America’s birthday is fast approaching. But let’s not wait for July 4 to light the fireworks. Another Independence Day is on the horizon.
Juneteenth falls on June 19 each year. It is a holiday whose history was hidden for much of the last century. But as the nation now observes the 150th anniversary of the Civil War’s onset, it is a holiday worth recognizing. In essence, Juneteenth marks what is arguably the most significant event in American history after independence itself—the eradication of American slavery.
For centuries, slavery was the dark stain on America’s soul, the deep contradiction to the nation’s founding ideals of “Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness” and “All men are created equal.” When Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, he took a huge step toward erasing that stain. But the full force of his proclamation would not be realized until June 19, 1865—Juneteenth, as it was called by slaves in Texas freed that day.
Limited-Edition Juneteenth Collection Available Now
Celebrated by African Americans for generations through food and fellowship, Juneteenth embodies Black resilience, independence, and community. It is a day African Americans set aside to commemorate the end of slavery and the promise of freedom—expressed through music, food, and ceremony.
The westernmost of the Confederate states, Texas did not get news of Gen. Robert E. Lee’s surrender at Appomatox that April until two months after the fact. But they heard once Union Gen. Gordon Granger, a New Yorker and West Point graduate with a distinguished wartime service record, arrived in Galveston Bay with more than 2,000 Union troops. It was on June 19 that he publicly read General Order No. 3, which began: “The people of Texas are informed that, in accordance with a proclamation from the Executive of the United States, all slaves are free.”
In amazement and disbelief, the 250,000 former slaves in Texas learned that they had been freed by the Emancipation Proclamation, which could not be enforced until the war was over. (It applied only to the states “in rebellion” at the time it was issued.) Shocked, disoriented, most likely fearful of an uncertain future in which they could do as they pleased, the liberated slaves of Texas celebrated. Their moment of jubilee was spontaneous and ecstatic, and began a tradition of marking freedom on Juneteenth.
A grass-roots celebration highlighted by joyous singing, pig roasts, and rodeos, Juneteenth took root in many African-American communities during the late 19th century. But Juneteenth was never accorded official respect or recognition. In the bitterness of the Reconstruction and Jim Crow eras, few states of the former Confederacy had any interest in celebrating emancipation. And as many African-Americans migrated north, especially in the Depression era, Juneteenth became a largely forgotten vestige of the Civil War era.
Before emancipation, America’s slaves and anyone else who prized equality, freedom and liberty knew that the Declaration of Independence only meant equality, freedom, and liberty for some. “What, to the American slave, is your 4th of July?” Frederick Douglass, the abolitionist and escaped slave, asked in his Independence Day oration in 1852. “I answer: a day that reveals to him, more than all other days in the year, the gross injustice and cruelty to which he is constant victim.”
Don't Know Much About® History, Anniversary Edition: Everything You Need to Know About American History but Never Learned (Don't Know Much About Series)
In this revised, expanded, and updated edition of the classic anti-textbook, he debunks, recounts, and serves up the real story behind the myths and fallacies of American history.
This year, let’s remember Juneteenth, the holiday that doesn’t mark a document, a battle, a birthday or a national tragedy, but the fundamental promise of America being more completely realized—the day on which Thomas Jefferson’s rousing rhetoric finally rang true throughout America, for all Americans.
Kenneth C. Davis is the author of Don’t Know Much About History (Anniversary Edition) and A Nation Rising.
The June 2016 Chamber of Commerce Lawsuit
Three lawsuits have been filed against the rule. The one that drew the most attention was filed in June 2016 by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association, and the Financial Services Roundtable in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Texas.
The basis of the suit is that the Obama administration did not have the authorization to take the action it did in endorsing and fast-tracking the legislation. Some lawmakers also believe the DOL itself was reaching beyond its jurisdiction by targeting IRAs. Precedent dictates Congress alone has approval power regarding a consumer’s right to sue. This is the suit that resulted in the March 15, 2018, ruling against the fiduciary rule discussed above.
After the DOL officially announced the 60-day delay to the rule's applicability, a "Retirement Ripoff Counter" was unveiled by Sen. Elizabeth Warren and AFL-CIO President Richard Trumka. Partnering with Americans for Financial Reform and the Consumer Federation of America, this counter attempts to highlight the ". cost to Americans of saving for retirement without the fiduciary rule, starting from Feb. 03, 2017." The press release from Americans for Financial Reform states, "Every day that conflicted advice continues costs them [Americans] $46 million a day, $1.9 million per hour, and $532 a second."
Historical Events in 1907
- Joe Gans lands a devastating right to the head of Canadian challenger Kid Herman to retain his world lightweight boxing title with an 8th round knockout in Tonopah, Nevada
Event of Interest
Jan 4 George Bernard Shaw's "Don Juan in Hell" premieres in London
Event of Interest
Jan 6 Maria Montessori opens her 1st (Montessori) school (Rome)
Event of Interest
- Britain grants responsible government to former colony of Transvaal An earthquake in Kingston, Jamaica, kills more than 1,000 3-element vacuum tube patented by Dr Lee De Forest Gold dental inlays first described by William Taggart, who invented them Stanley Cup Hockey, Montreal Arena, Westmount, Quebec: Kenora Thistles (ON) beat Montreal Wanderers, 8-6 for 12-8 aggregate challenge series victory Charles Curtis of Kansas becomes 1st Native American US senator Julia Ward Howe is first woman elected to National Institute of Arts & Letters (USA) 1st US federal corrupt election practices law passed John Millington Synge's "Playboy of Western World" opens in Dublin play claimed as immoral and causes riots The Short Magazine Lee-Enfield Mk III rifle officially introduced into British Military Service, 2nd oldest military rifle still in official use In Austria, universal and direct suffrage (limited to males over 24) is introduced, a reform long demanded by the socialists and others
Event of Interest
Feb 5 Arnold Schoenberg's 1st string quartet premieres in Vienna
- The Mud March, first large procession organized by the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) Conservative coalition take over Reichstag in Germany after rallying conservatives against the threat of a socialist government De Master's Dutch government resigns Passenger ship Larchmont sinks by Block Island, off Rhode Island, 322 die English suffragettes storm British Parliament & 60 women are arrested 1st US foxhound association forms in NYC SS Berlin sinks off the Hook of Holland (142 dead) 1st cabs with taxi meters begin operating in London Leonid Andreyev's "Zhizn Cheloveka" premieres in St Petersburg George Bernard Shaw's "Philanderer" premieres in London US proclaims protectorate over Dominican Republic Royal Oil & Shell merge to form British Petroleum (BP) US Congress raise their own salaries to $7,500
Election of Interest
Feb 26 Louis Botha Het Volk Party wins a majority in the election in Transvaal, South Africa
Event of Interest
Feb 27 Psychiatrists Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud meet for the first time in Vienna
- General Louis Botha named premier of Transvaal Georges Feydeaus' "La Puce à l'Oreille" premieres in Paris 1st radio broadcast of a musical composition aired
Boxing Title Fight
May 8 Canadian Tommy Burns retains his world heavyweight boxing title after beating "Philadelphia" Jack O'Brien on points in 20 rounds in Los Angeles, California
- Paul Dukas' opera "Ariane et Barbe Bleue" premieres in Paris Bank of San Francisco incorporated A derailment outside Lompoc, California, kills 32 Shriners when their chartered train jumps off the tracks at a switch near Surf Depot Sweden adopts universal suffrage for elections to its lower house and proportional representation for both houses In the Pact of Cartagena, Great Britain, France, and Spain agree to maintain the status quo in the Mediterranean and along the Atlantic coast of Europe and Africa 32nd Preakness: G Mountain aboard Don Enrique wins in 1:45.4 Albert Trott takes two hat-tricks in an innings, Middlesex v Somerset The single chamber Parliament of Finland gathers for its first plenary session. Chicago White Sox pitcher Ed Walsh no-hits NY Highlanders, 8-1 in 5 inning game Bubonic Plague breaks out in San Francisco Auto-Cycle Union Tourist Trophy, 1st held
Jun 15 Researcher George Soper publishes the results of his investigation into recent typhoid outbreaks in the New York area and announces that Mary Mallon [Typhoid Mary] is the likely source of the outbreak
Event of Interest
Jun 16 Tsar Nicolas II of Russia dissolves the Second Duma (parliament) and issues an edict that will increase representation of propertied classes while reducing that of peasants, workers and national minorities
- 1st Portland Rose festival held in Portland, Oregon US Open Men's Golf, Philadelphia Cricket Club: Alec Ross of Scotland posts 4 sub-80 rounds to win his only major title, 2 strokes ahead of runner-up Gilbert Nicholls E. W. Scripps founds United Press Associations in the US British Open Men's Golf, Royal Liverpool GC: Frenchman Arnaud Massy wins by 2 strokes from J.H. Taylor first non-Briton to win Open Championship Bolsheviks overthrows transport in Tiflis
Event of Interest
Jun 28 Nationals steal a record 13 bases off catcher Branch Rickey
- The Orange River Colony, known as the Orange Free State, is granted self-government by the British US National Championship Women's Tennis, Philadelphia CC: Evelyn Sears beats fellow American Carrie Neely 6-3, 6-2 for her lone major singles title Pope decree forbids modernization of theology Canadian world heavyweight boxing champion Tommy Burns KOs Bill Squires of Australia in round 1 in Colma, California, his 6th title defence Wimbledon Men's Tennis: Australian Norman Brookes becomes the first non-Englishman and left-hander to win Wimbledon beating Arthur Gore 6-4, 6-2, 6-2 Wimbledon Women's Tennis: American May Sutton avenges previous year's defeat, beating Dorothea Chambers 6-1, 6-4 Tom Reece takes 5 weeks to compile the highest recorded billiards break in a match (499,135) in London, his 'cradle' cannon method is soon banned Florenz Ziegfeld staged 1st `Follies' on NY Theater roof Florenz Ziegfeld's "Follies of 1907" premieres in NYC French troops occupy Casablanca Under pressure from the Japanese, the Emperor of Korea abdicates in favor of his son, a figurehead A train wreck on the Pere Marquette Railroad near Salem, Michigan kills thirty and injures seventy more International Lawn Tennis Challenge, Wimbledon: Norman Brookes beats Herbert Roper Barrett 6-2, 6-0, 6-3 to give Australasia a 3-2 win over British Isles Korea becomes a protectorate of Japan 1st helicopter ascent in Douai, France
Event of Interest
Jul 29 Sir Robert Baden-Powell forms Boy Scouts in England
- Russia and Japan sign an agreement guaranteeing freedom of China while recognizing each other's special interests The Filipinos elect their first legislature it will meet on 16 October Starting today, the French bombard Casablanca and land troops to occupy the Atlantic-coast region of Morocco after attacks on foreigners U.S. Army Signal Corps establish a small Aeronautical Division
Event of Interest
Aug 1 Bank of Italy (later Bank of America) opens 1st branch at 3433 Mission Street, San Francisco
Hall of Fame
Aug 2 Legendary pitcher Walter Johnson at 19 begins his 21 year Baseball Hall of Fame playing career with Washington with 3-2 loss v Detroit
- Emperor Wilhelm (Germany) meets with Tsar Nicholas (Russia) to discuss Germany's plan to build a railroad to Baghdad the discussion helps move Russia towards Britain and eventually the Triple Alliance Tour de France: Lucien Petit-Breton of France beats countryman Gustave Garrigou to win first of 2 Tour victories MLB Washington Senators legendary pitcher Walter Johnson wins first of his 416 career wins, 7-2 v Cleveland 1st Boy Scout camp concludes at Brownsea Island in Poole Harbour, Southern England Prince Scipone Borchesi wins Beijing to Paris, 7,500 mile auto rally St Louis Card Ed Karger pitches perfect game vs Braves, 4-0 in 7 inn 1st taxicabs operate in New York City, imported by Harry N. Allen Mulay Hafid is proclaimed the Sultan of Morocco by supporters leading to civil war Mulay is supported by Germany while France supports the existing Sultan Bishop forbids Christian membership of Dutch Textile Union Pitts Howie Camnitz no-hits NY Giants, 1-0 in 5 inning game Australasian Championships Men's Tennis, Brisbane : Australian Horace Rice beats Harry Parker of New Zealand 6-3, 6-4, 6-4
Event of Interest
Aug 26 Harry Houdini escapes from chains underwater at Aquatic Park in 57 seconds
- United Parcel Service is founded by James E. Casey in Seattle, Washington. US National Championship Men's Tennis, Newport, RI: William Larned beats Robert LeRoy 6-2, 6-2, 6-4 for his third US singles title The Quebec Bridge over St Lawrence River collapses during construction, killing 75 workers Britain & Russia sign treaty with Afghanistan, Persia & Tibet Britain, Russia & France form Triple Entente
Meeting of Interest
Sep 5 King Edward VII of Great Britain meets Russia's Foreign Minister Alexander Izvolski in an attempt to strengthen Russia's relationship with Britain
- Adolph Sutro's ornate Cliff House in San Francisco destroyed by fire Ocean liner RMS Lusitania begins her maiden voyage sailing from Liverpool to New York City Pope Pius X publishes encyclical Pasceni dominici gregis (anti-modernism) Lusitania arrives in New York City after record 5 day crossing of Atlantic Canadian Interprovincial Rugby Football Union (IRFU) forms with merge of Hamilton Tigers, Toronto Argonauts (ORFU) and Ottawa Rough Riders, Montreal FC (QRFU) Pitts Nick Maddox no-hits Bkln Dodgers, 2-1 Proclamation sets fineness & weight of silver & bronze coins of Canada
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Flag Day, also called National Flag Day, in the United States, a day honouring the national flag, observed on June 14. The holiday commemorates the date in 1777 when the United States approved the design for its first national flag. Flag Day is celebrated on Monday, June 14, 2021 in the United States.
The idea to set aside a day to honour the national flag came from several sources. Bernard J. Cigrand, a Wisconsin schoolteacher, in 1885 urged his students to observe June 14 as “Flag Birthday.” He later wrote an essay published in a Chicago newspaper that urged Americans to proclaim this date as the day to celebrate the flag. In 1888 William T. Kerr of Pennsylvania founded the American Flag Day Association of Western Pennsylvania, an organization to which he dedicated his life. A lesser-known claim is that of George Morris of Connecticut, who is said to have organized the first formal celebration of the day in Hartford in 1861.
In 1916 Pres. Woodrow Wilson proclaimed June 14 as the official date for Flag Day, and in 1949 the U.S. Congress permanently established the date as National Flag Day. Although Flag Day is not an official federal holiday, Pennsylvania celebrates the day as a state holiday. Each year the U.S. president delivers an address that proclaims the week of June 14 as National Flag Week, and all Americans are encouraged to fly U.S. flags during that week.
The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.