The hydronium ion or hydronium is the name given to the H3O+cation, derived from the protonation of water. The hydronium ion is the simplest type of oxonium ion. It is produced when an Arrhenius acid dissolves in water. Hydronium is also abundant in the interstellar medium and tails of comets.
Hydronium Ion and pH
In chemistry, pH is calculated as the ratio of hydronium ions to hydroxide (OH-) ions. When the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration is discussed, it's actually hydronium. The auto-dissociation of water at equilibrium is:
2 H2O ⇌ OH− + H3O+
In pure water, the number of hydroxide and hydronium ions is equal and the pH is neutral or 7.
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