New

Seshat, Luxor Temple

Seshat, Luxor Temple


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Understanding the Difference Between Cult and Mortuary Temples

I got asked a question by a guest who stayed at Flats in Luxor, we were looking at the temple of Hatshepsut which you can see from the balcony. It was perfectly answered by an essay I had to do and he suggested I share it.

What are the differences and similarities between a cult temple and a royal mortuary temple of the New Kingdom?

Introduction
It is surprising that the terminology used by Egyptologists for many years, to describe the temples, is actually quite difficult to define this seems to be a recognised problem. There are also slight variations on these terms such as divine instead of cult and memorial instead of mortuary. Should they even be used?

The ancient Egyptians refer to the two varieties of temple differently, “Mansion of Millions of Years” (Hwt-n t-HH-m-mp.wt), for mortuary temples and “Mansion of the God” (hwt-nTr) for the cult temple, but without defining what is actually meant by the terms. Traditional differentiations such as mortuary temples being situated on the west bank and cult temples on the east don’t help as there are examples of both on the opposite sides. Some kings also built more than one temple of each type on a different side of the river. For example Tuthmosis III built a Temple of Millions of years at Karnak, on the East Bank, the so called Festival Hall he also built on the West Bank in the northern Assasif. This temple is also called a Temple of a Million of Years. He also built at Deir el Bahri and dedicated that temple to Amun, so that is an example of a cult temple on the West Bank.

To use the area devoted to the royal mortuary cult as a definition as to whether the temple is a mortuary temple is also problematic. Can the Gurna temple of Seti I seriously be called a mortuary temple when the royal cult is a tiny part off the back of the building which is reached by exiting the temple proper and going down the side to the back on the southern wall. Whereas the main temple has chapels to Osiris, Ptah, Amun, Mut and Khonsu as well as a sun altar which are so much bigger and more prominent. Then there are temples like the Seti I temple at Abydos which, although it does have a chapel dedicated to Seti I, it also has numerous other chapels, which precludes us from saying that if the temple has a chapel to the king, no matter what size, that makes it a mortuary temple. The temple at Abydos is a very special cult temple to Osiris. Consequently, actually defining what is a mortuary or cult temple is fraught with difficulties.

Thankfully for the purposes of this essay other sources are more willing to come down on one side of the fence. The cult temple is the easiest for us to understand for it is the place where a particular god or gods resided and where cultic activities took place, which we might term worship. The mortuary temple, in contrast, was the royal version of the mortuary chapels attached to private tombs, and it’s most basic purpose was to provide offerings for the use of the dead king and to ensure his beneficial survival in the afterlife. So for our purposes we can take this simplified definition. Indeed the very first mortuary temple built by Hatshepsut was built on the eastern side of the monument surrounding the tomb mimicking the Old Kingdom mortuary temple on the side of a pyramid. It was just that her structure was the rather large natural mountain.

Background
It wasn’t until the New Kingdom that temples were built of stone. Our knowledge of what preceded them or how the design came about is necessarily slim as their predecessors do not survive. Kemp suggests that temple history and design can be categorized as Early Formal, Mature Formal and Late Formal. The temples of the New Kingdom come into the Mature Formal category. It is probable that the layout was similar to earlier temples there must have always been a special sacred area where the statue of the God resided. This was at a higher level than the rest of the area and the later design of slightly ascending floor level copies this.

Design
It seems as though the overall plan was loosely defined and the selection of, and number of elements, courtyard, hall and sanctuary, was a matter of personal choice. The mortuary temple used these same elements, open courtyard, hypostyle halls, sanctuary, in the same order making the cult temple the inspiration for the mortuary temple. The temple did not only consist of the temple proper but all the ancillary buildings, gardens, storage, workshops and housing. See Fig 1. So both secular and divine requirements could be met. Processional ways, although outside the temple boundaries are an important part of the overall design, where God met the people even if he was hidden in the barque shrine. The temple precinct overall design was also not rigid, although various elements are generally incorporated. For example although it has been diligently searched for, no sacred lake or well has been found at the Ramasseum. So each king would select or emphasis elements he favoured.

As well as following the pattern of a house the temple also followed the design of world around them. Ceilings are covered in stars, columns take the form of papyrus and lotus and maybe that the undulating walls may have been built to mimic the waters of Nun and that the pylons represent the hieroglyph for the horizon. Orientation is generally East to West although there are occasional exceptions like Luxor temple. This meant that the sun would rise and set between the pylons.

The external decoration of the temple shows what the king wanted people to know about him and the internal what he wanted the Gods to know about him. The front of the pylon often shows war like scenes. The king smiting his enemies is a common theme and carries the hidden meaning of the king subduing external chaos in his role of upholder of Maat. The pylons at Karnak have many examples of this. Another common scene is the king being heroic and warlike in a chariot firing arrows against enemies. Various gods accompany the scenes, often the God of the cult temple, a recording God like Thoth or Seshat or an alternative warlike God like Neith or Sekhmet. Often there is a list of captive towns and this would have added a propaganda advantage.

Within the temple the king would be shown making offerings to the Gods, both the God of the temple and other Gods in the pantheon. At one and the same time the king is showing reverence for the Gods and the Gods would be rewarding the king for this act of devotion. Important events in the king’s life are often recorded. For example the coronation of the king, examples are at Medinet Habu and Karnak.

Function
The function of a cult temple was to provide a hidden place for the statue of the god and a place of theatre. The temple was a possible site(s) of a Heb Seb or coronation celebration but most importantly it was the house of the God, where he/she resided, where offerings were received, incense burnt, specific clothing worn, dances performed and the God revitalised. Cult temples could be at a national or local level, national ones could host functions like the coronation of the king or his Heb Seb festival.

It was also important for the king to be seen to build temples. The king had to be seen to be offering to the Gods in perpetuity.

Our use of the word priest carries much baggage from our own culture, for example it implies pastoral care of the congregation, teaching the theology and rites of passage such as christenings. These were not aspects of the role of an Egyptian priest. He was a servant to the God and his role was to serve the god. Just like a servant in an ordinary house.

Comparison
What are the differences and similarities between a mortuary temple and a cult temple? A mortuary temple has a chapel for the benefit of the king and the royal ka. This mortuary temple is the place for offerings and the temple itself is based cult temples. This does not have to be the prime or only function of the temple but can be restricted to a small part of the temple like that of Seti I. The design however is the same for both temples selecting one or more of the various elements from all the possible ones for both temple complex and the actual building.

There are also other, less important differences as well. Rather than God related heads to the sphinxes, such as rams headed sphinxes at Karnak and Luxor temples there are jackal headed sphinxes. Merenptah and Ramses II had dozens of these at their temples and there are still examples on site. There is often a temple palace attached to a mortuary temple. This was not where the king lived but merely a summer house or picnic hut used during ceremonies held at the temple as there were no kitchens.

So it is the function that is different in the two types of temple, not the design, location or elements and this function can be limited to a small part of the temple

A good example of a mortuary temple is the temple of Seti I. The gateway of the first pylon is made from limestone and is decorated. It has two open courtyards with a possible roofed colonnade leading to a portico with three entrances. To the left or southern side of the first courtyard is a small temple palace. It has two entrances and in the middle there is a pillared hall with a flight of steps leading to a window of appearances. These windows allowed the king to appear to selected individuals surrounded by scenes showing power and majesty, often to present costly rewards such as collars of gold.

The second courtyard is at a higher level than the first courtyard and is the Heb Seb courtyard. This courtyard is surrounded by a wall. The right (most northern) entrance leads to an open area with an altar used for the worship of the sun. The central entrance leads to a hypostyle hall with a number of side rooms. Side chapels show the king offering or having libations poured over him.

This then leads to 5 chapels dedicated to Amun, Mut and Khonsu, the Theban triad, with the addition of chapels to Osiris and Ptah. These chapels are decorated with pictures of the barque shrine and the king making offerings to it. Above the entrances are pictures of the god to whom the chapel is dedicated. The central area was decorated with 2 goddesses suckling the king and many scenes to celebrate the ‘Beautiful Feast of the Valley’. Seti’s temple would have been the first stop on the west bank in this important festival. The King is invariable shown bowing, kneeling or inclined before the gods. The temple lines up with Karnak temple and from the hill behind the temple the first pylon is clearly visible. The hill surmounting the Valley of kings dominates the temple

The left hand or southern entrance leads to a chapel dedicated to Ramses I, who never had time to build his own mortuary temple. To the rear of this sub temple are some fine false doors. Exiting the chapel at the side and going to the back behind the false doors of the Ramses I temple area there is a further chapel for the royal mortuary cult. This is the part that makes it different to a cult temple there was a specific area where offerings could be made to the king who was buried in the Valley of Kings. The entrance halls are interconnected. The sanctuary floor is higher than those preceding it and the roof is lower, the smallest, darkest place. The roof of the temple has footprints carved into the floor so this must have had some significance.

The temple of Khonsu at Karnak is an excellent example of a cult temple as the design is cohesive being executed by a limited number of kings Ramses III, IV and XII. When there are a lot of kings involved in the design, like at Karnak, the design is harder to see as there are so many additions and reworking. The gateway should be ignored as it is outside the time period being Ptolemaic.

The temple is connected to the both the Temple of Mut and Luxor temple by an avenue of sphinxes leading to a pylon. The axis is south/north which is probably dictated by the need to line up with Luxor temple via the avenue of sphinxes. A similar axial alteration was made at Luxor temple by Ramses II,

This avenue would have hosted the processions between the various temples and an opportunity for the populous to see the barque containing the statue of the God. Inside the pylon is a staircase leading to the top and several ‘windows’ can be seen at the top.

Behind the pylon there is just one open courtyard with a roofed colonnade, the columns are closed papyrus bud capitals. A set of steps lead to the hypostyle hall, which is lit by celestory windows and contains examples of open papyrus capitals. The columns support a higher central roof with closed bud capitals which support the side roof. The celestory windows are built in to the side wall between the high central roof and the side roofs. The temple further ascends until the area of the barque shrine and ambulatory around it. As the temple floor ascends the roof level descends. Leading off, in the south east corner, is a stairway leading to the roof which has a chapel. There are side rooms and at the back in the smallest, darkest place, the sanctuary.

The interior decoration is of the king making offerings to a selection of gods and barques of the gods, not just to Khonsu. Only the ambulatory and inner chapels were decorated by kings of the New Kingdom, principally Ramses III and Ramses IV. The Theban triad dominate but the other moon god, Thoth is also present. Khonsu is shown both as a falcon headed god with a moon crescent and a young boy with a forelock of youth and moon insignia

There are also important iconic images like the king receiving libations and unification of the two lands. The outside of the pylon is not decorated but if finished would have no doubt show the king smiting his enemies or a similar war like portrayal. The temple would have had a number of statues and there are still some remaining including a baboon which is associated with moon and sun gods.

Conclusion
In conclusion there is no or little difference in design or decoration between a mortuary and cult temple, just the function. Elements such as pylons, courtyards, sanctuaries could appear in both


Seshat, Luxor Temple - History

  • Sections
    • Home
    • Beginning Hours
    • What to Upgrade First
    • Stone Circle Index
    • Hermit Location Index
    • Burning Bush
    • Dead or Alive
    • Dead End
    • Fallen Friend
    • Forsaken City
    • In Plain Sight
    • Just Laws
    • Sobek's Rage
    • Nature's Way
    • Royal Flora
    • The Blasphemer
    • Underground Currents
    • Undue Haste
    • Wet Work
    • Stone Gaze
    • Ray of Hope
    • Toth's Secret
    • Twin Despair
    • Leaning Tower
    • A Long Drink
    • Fertile Lands
    • Deafening Silence
    • Divided Valley
    • Stone Fungus
    • Sea of Sand
    • Crafting Materials
    • XP
    • Drachmas
    • Ability Points
    • The Isu Armor
    • Achievement Guide
    • Prologue (Main Quest)
    • The Oasis (Main Quest)
    • The False Oracle (Main Quest)
    • May Amun Walk Beside You (Main Quest)
    • The Final Weighing (Main Quest)
    • Exploring Siwa
    • Gear Up (Side Quest)
    • Hideaway (Side Quest)
    • Striking the Anvil (Side Quest)
    • Family Reunion (Side Quest)
    • Water Rats (Side Quest)
    • Prisoners in the Temple (Side Quest)
    • Bayek's Promise (Side Quest)
    • The Healer (Side Quest)
    • Coral Escarpment Camp (Location)
    • Temple of Amun (Location)
    • Lysandros' Oracle Offerings (Location)
    • Northern Fast Travel Point (Location)
    • Hyena Lair (Location)
    • Vulture Lair (Location)
    • Ibex Lair (Location)
    • Halma Point (Location)
    • Serqet Stone Circle (Location)
    • Divine Lion Stone Circle (Location)
    • Necropolis Bandit Hideout (Location)
    • House of Sand Hideout (Location)
    • Secrets of the First Pyramids (DLC Side Quest)
    • Hidden Tax (Side Quest)
    • The Book of the Dead (Sidequest)
    • Ambush in the Temple (Side Quest)
    • Ulterior Votive (Side Quest)
    • Taste of Her Sting (Side Quest)
    • Lady of Slaughter (Sidequest)
    • Birthright (Side Quest)
    • Smoke Over Water (Side Quest)
    • Lost Crypt (Location)
    • Abandoned Temple Hideout
    • Hippo Lair (Location)
    • Hypostyle Hall (Location)
    • South Mareotis Trireme (Location)
    • Mareia Trireme (Location)
    • North Mareotis Trireme (Location)
    • Mareia Anchorage (Location)
    • Sunken Desmoterion Ship (Location)
    • Adexios Naftis Shipwreck (Location)
    • Dead Men Tell No Tales (Location)
    • Anoia Cave (Location)
    • Shrine to Thoth (Fast Travel Point)
    • Lake Mareotis Crocodile Lair (Location)
    • Vulture Lair (Location)
    • Sapthis Outpost (Location)
    • Leirion Apiary (Location)
    • The Scarab's Sting (Main Quest)
    • The Scarab's Lies (Main Quest)
    • Pompeius Magnus (Main Quest)
    • Abuse of Power (Side Quest)
    • The Ostrich (Side Quest)
    • New Kid in Town (Side Quest)
    • Worker's Lament (Side Quest)
    • Lost Happiness (Side Quest)
    • The Old Library (Side Quest)
    • All Eyes On Us (Side Quest)
    • Conflicts of Interest (Side-Quest)
    • Mefkat (Location)
    • Camp Shemu (Location)
    • Psenemphaia Hideout (Location)
    • Dasos Hideout (Location)
    • Camp Pyrrhos (Location)
    • Nikiou Fort (Location)
    • Camp Achlys (Location)
    • Nikiou Post (Location)
    • The Tax Master (Side Quest)
    • Temple of Horus (Location)
    • Sapi Res Ruins (Location)
    • Hippopotamus Lair (Location)
    • Hathor of Mefkat (Location)
    • Kleptes End (Location)
    • Aya Part I (Main Quest)
    • Gennadios the Phylakitai (Main Quest)
    • End of the Snake (Main Quest)
    • Aya Part II (Main Quest)
    • Egypt's Medjay (Main Quest)
    • Battle of the Nile (Main Quest)
    • The Aftermath (Main Quest)
    • The Last of the Medjay (Main Quest)
    • Fall of an Empire, Rise of Another (Main Quest)
    • Serapis Unites (Side Quest)
    • A Tithe by Any Other Name (Side Quest)
    • The Accidental Philosopher (Side Quest)
    • The Odyssey (Side Quest)
    • Higher Education (Side Quest)
    • The Last Bodyguard (Side Quest)
    • Wrath of the Poets (Side Quest)
    • The Shifty Scribe (Side Quest)
    • The Symposiasts (Side Quest)
    • Phylakitai in the Eye (Side Quest)
    • Old Times (Side Quest)
    • Cat's Cradle (Side Quest)
    • Great Library (Location)
    • Sarapeion (Location)
    • South Wall Guard Post (Location)
    • Mareia Military Storage (Location)
    • Pharos Military Storage (Location)
    • Iseion (Location)
    • Pharos Garrison (Location)
    • The Royal Palace (Location)
    • Tomb of Alexander the Great (Location)
    • Armory (Location)
    • The Great Synagogue (Location)
    • Narrow Crevice (Location)
    • Aya's Home (Location)
    • East Mediterranean Trireme (Location)
    • Blue Hooligans (Side Quest)
    • Wild Ride (Side Quest)
    • The Weasel (Side Quest)
    • The Hungry River (Side Quest)
    • Zephyros Stables (Location)
    • Als Hideout (Location)
    • Menelaite Trireme (Location)
    • Requisitioned Tavern (Location)
    • Camp Menouthis (Location)
    • Crocodile Lair (Location)
    • Akra Garrison (Location)
    • Heket Beer Cache (Location)
    • Shrine of Serapis (Location)
    • Aristoteles Shrine (Location)
    • Sunken Temple of Sarapeion (Location)
    • Hamew Hut (Location)
    • Smuggler's Dock (Location)
    • Hyena Lair (Location)
    • The Hyena (Main Quest)
    • Precious Bonds (Side Quest)
    • What's Yours is Mine (Side Quest)
    • Great Sphinx (Location)
    • Sphinx Passageway (Location)
    • Eesfet Oon-m'Aa Poo (Location)
    • Great Pyramid of Giza (Location)
    • Tomb of Khafre (Location)
    • Hemon Mastaba (Location)
    • Khufu Temple Hideout (Location)
    • Eastern Cemetary Mastaba (Location)
    • Khentkawes Hideout (Location)
    • Depleted Quarry Hideout (Location)
    • Per-Wsir Hideout (Location)
    • Lost Village (Location)
    • Mausoleion of Crow (Location)
    • Tomb of Menkaure (Location)
    • Adorer of Thoth Tomb (Location)
    • Tomb of Khufu (Location)
    • Camp Kataskinono (Location)
    • Hyena Lair (Location)
    • Hathor Stone Circle (Location)
    • Khensu Anchorage (Location)
    • Khem Trireme (Location)
    • Ranos Hamlet (Location)
    • Sebennytos Shipwreck (Location)
    • Lion Lair (Location)
    • Thick Skin (Side Quest)
    • Fair Trade (Side Quest)
    • In Protest (Side Quest)
    • Potamos Hideout (Location)
    • Hypodorus Hamlet (Location)
    • Anthylla Outpost (Location)
    • Mareia Port (Location)
    • Crocodile Lair (Location)
    • Peristerion Town (Location)
    • Sap-Meh Warehouse (Location)
    • Taua (Location)
    • Crocodile Lair (Location)
    • Hugros Crossing Watchtower (Location)
    • Akronisos Camp (Location)
    • Pyramides Wharf (Location)
    • Kerkasoros Outpost
    • Camp Agrophylake (Location)
    • Anchorage (Location)
    • Upper Nile Trireme (Location)
    • Plesionhudir Hideout (Location)
    • Winbe (Location)
    • Akhet's Crown
    • Altar to Hapi (Location)
    • Castoff Temple of Hapi (Location)
    • Abandoned Temple of Kherty (Location)
    • Crocodile Lair (Location)
    • Ogdamos (Location)
    • Kalliergeia (Location)
    • Keno Hideout (Location)
    • Keno (Location)
    • The Lizard's Mask (Main Quest)
    • The Lizard's Face (Main Quest)
    • Odor Most Foul (Side Quest)
    • The Baker's Dilemma (Side Quest)
    • Blood in the Water (Side Quest)
    • Taimhotep's Song (Side Quest)
    • A Dream of Ashes (Side Quest)
    • Children of the Streets (Side Quest)
    • Mortem Romanum (Side Quest)
    • Temple of Ptah (Location)
    • Temple of Hathor (Location)
    • Hathor Cistern (Location)
    • Palace of Apries (Location)
    • Sunken Crypt (Location)
    • Sunken Temple of Ramses (Location)
    • Memphites Barracks
    • Apagogeas Hideout (Location)
    • Wabet (Location)
    • Corrupted Soldier's Cache (Location)
    • Omorli Villa (Location)
    • Yuny's Beset Villa (Location)
    • Fai-Jon Lamentu Crypt (Location)
    • Bureau of the Hidden Ones (Location)
    • Bonus Quest: A Gift From the Gods
    • Rites of Anubis (Side Quest)
    • First Blood (Side Quest)
    • When Night Falls (Side Quest)
    • Mryitmw High (Location)
    • A Rebel Alliance (Side Quest)
    • Tomb of Djoser (Location)
    • Tomb of Sneferu (Location)
    • Bent Pyramid of Sneferu (Location)
    • Hugros Hideout (Location)
    • Per Our Hideout (Location)
    • Stranded Natron Caravan (Location)
    • Psammos Hideout (Location)
    • Unfortunate Stash (Location)
    • Ruined Temple of Mafdet (Location)
    • Ekdikesis Outpost (Location)
    • Hyena Lair (Location)
    • Vulture Lair (Location)
    • Leopard Lair (Location)
    • Cobra Lair (Location)
    • The Crocodile's Scales (Main Quest)
    • Murder in the Temple (Side Quest)
    • Feeding Faiyum (Side Quest)
    • Curse of Wadjet (Side Quest)
    • Rebel Strike (Side Quest)
    • Forging Siwa (Side Quest)
    • The Sickness (Side Quest)
    • Sobek's Gold (Side Quest)
    • Fires of Dionysus (Side Quest)
    • Demons in the Desert (Side Quest)
    • The Bride (Side Quest)
    • Tawaret Stone Circle (Location)
    • Eremites Hideout (Location)
    • Pisces Stone Circle (Location)
    • Valley Market (Location)
    • Sarapeion of Karanis (Location)
    • Dionysias Wharf (Location)
    • Cleon's Wharf (Location)
    • Wadjet's Burrow (Location)
    • Pannouki Hideout (Location)
    • Bakchias (Location)
    • Beached Trireme Camp (Location)
    • Dionysias Caravanserai (Location)
    • Euhemeria Lighthouse Camp (Location)
    • Okteres Blockade (Location)
    • Covert Grain Store (Location)
    • Euhemeria Royal Granary (Location)
    • Abandoned Fishing Village (Location)
    • Wrecked Felucca (Location)
    • Seized Oikos (Location)
    • Requisitioned Dionysias House (Location)
    • Philoteris (Location)
    • Sunken Trireme (Location)
    • Sunken Temple of Pnepheros (Location)
    • Senwosret II Temple (Location)
    • West Moeris Trireme (Location)
    • Sea of Sobek Anchorage (Location)
    • Shi-Wer Anchorage (Location)
    • East Moeris Trireme (Location)
    • Vault of Wonders (Location)
    • Underground Stash (Location)
    • Golden Horn Island (Location)
    • Ketket Cove Hideout (Location)
    • Hippopotamus Lair (Location)
    • Hyena Lair (Location)
    • Vulture Lair (Location)
    • The Crocodile's Jaws (Main Quest)
    • Shadya's Rest (Side Quest)
    • Fighting for Faiyum (Side Quest)
    • Sobek's Tears (Side Quest)
    • Jaws of Sobek (Side Quest)
    • Bad Faith (Side Quest)
    • The Champion (Sidequest)
    • The Man Beast (Side Quest)
    • Temple of Sobek (Location)
    • House of Iwn (Location)
    • Kerkesoucha Granary (Location)
    • Hephaistias Wharf (Location)
    • Dioryx Megale Wharf (Location)
    • South Moeris Trireme (Location)
    • Rubbayat Necropolis (Location)
    • Neorion Navel Arsenal (Location)
    • Docked Naukleros Ship (Location)
    • Faiyum Nomarch Villa (Location)
    • Philadelphia Royal Granary (Location)
    • Schena Wab (Location)
    • Psenhyris Trireme Wharf (Location)
    • Sesen Grotto (Location)
    • Confiscated Stathmos (Location)
    • Immersed Reed Pakton (Location)
    • Piamouei Colossi (Location)
    • Crocodile Lair (Location)
    • Plight of the Rebels (Side Quest)
    • Apis Stone Circle (Location)
    • Goatfish Stone Circle (Location)
    • Golden Tomb (Location)
    • Oun-mAa Niye Ressoot (Location)
    • Tomb of the Nomads (Location)
    • Alexander's Temple (Location)
    • Kaminada Stairwell (Location)
    • Hmat Oasis (Location)
    • Burial Delving (Location)
    • Demiourgos Altar (Location)
    • Ouahe (Location)
    • Camp Tamaris (Location)
    • Camp Hetoimazo (Location)
    • Camp Dory (Location)
    • Camp Khoikos (Location)
    • Camp Xeros (Location)
    • Pissa Oros Citadel (Location)
    • Bathoslythos Ridge (Location)
    • Hyena Lair (Location)
    • Vulture Lair (Location)
    • Vulture Lair 2 (Location)
    • Bewail Mountain Cave (Location)
    • Saragina Camp (Location)
    • Leopard Lair (Location)
    • Lion Lair (Location)
    • Unseeing Eyes (Side Quest)
    • The Good Roman (Side Quest)
    • Balagrae Roman Barracks (Location)
    • One Bad Apple (Side Quest)
    • Taking Liberty (Side Quest)
    • Carpe Diem (Side Quest)
    • Halo of the Huntress (Side Quest)
    • Shadows of Apollo (Side Quest)
    • Asklepieion (Location)
    • Oracle of Apollo (Location)
    • Aquaeductus Kyrenaike (Location)
    • Auritania Roman Tower (Location)
    • Roman Watchtower (Location)
    • Kyrenaika Roman Citadel (Location)
    • Prasinos Outpost (Location)
    • Roman Quarry Camp (Location)
    • Collis Roman Hunting Camp (Location)
    • Akabis Roman Tower (Location)
    • Bandit Hideout (Location)
    • Necropolis Hideout (Location)
    • Kastor High Hideout (Location)
    • Poludeukes Hideout (Location)
    • Desperate Gully Hideout (Location)
    • Refugee Haven (Location)
    • Lumber Depots (Location)
    • Poimen Relay (Location)
    • Theras Ampelos (Location)
    • Lake of the Clouds Ruins (Location)
    • Leopard Lair (Location)
    • Vulture Lair (Location)
    • Roman Camp of Surus (Location)
    • His Secret Service (Side Quest)
    • Chernsonesos Roman Fort (Location)
    • Livius Roman Tower (Location)
    • Thintis Roman Tower (Location)
    • Bemulos Roman Tower (Location)
    • Hydrax Roman Camp (Location)
    • Desolated Lookout (Location)
    • Kelida Hideout (Location)
    • Theodoros Roadside Camp (Location)
    • Endumion's Nemein (Location)
    • Legio XXXVII Roman Docks (Location)
    • Archile Pandocheion (Location)
    • Hudor Fountain (Location)
    • Erython Dye Workshops (Location)
    • Shrine to Hygeia (Location)
    • Cape Chersonesos Settlement (Location)
    • Lion Lair (Location)
    • Great Twins Stone Circle (Location)
    • White Desert Sobek Ruins (Location)
    • Whymhty Vault (Location)
    • Desert Waterfalls Hideout (Location)
    • Larder Station Hideout (Location)
    • Djbt Jm Hideout (Location)
    • Desheret Dewu (Location)
    • Hideout of Herwennefer (Location)
    • Seven Farmers (Side Quest)
    • Horus Stone Circle (Location)
    • Scales Stone Circle (Location)
    • Tomb of the Cynic (Location)
    • Trireme Stranding Camp (Location)
    • Overwatch Tower (Location)
    • Senehem Depths (Location)
    • Arsinoites Quarry Hideout (Location)
    • Ravaged Outpost (Location)
    • Hippopotamus Lair (Location)
    • Hyena Lair (Location)
    • Hippopotamus Lair (Location)
    • Leopard Lair (Location)
    • Camp of Qetesh & Resheph (Location)
    • Temple of Thoth (Location)
    • Tomb of Smenkhkare (Location)
    • Tomb of Amenemhat III (Location)
    • Eeyoo Sekedoo Aat (Location)
    • Cleon's Dam (Location)
    • Fort Boubastos (Location)
    • Limestone Quarry (Location)
    • Kleithra Dam (Location)
    • Temple Archives (Location)
    • Metallon Docks (Location)
    • Etesias' Olive Grove (Location)
    • Iw Forgotten Cache (Location)
    • Lion Lair (Location)
    • The Matriarch (Side Quest)
    • Warehouse of the Toparches (Location)
    • Kerke Wharf (Location)
    • South Nile Trireme (Location)
    • Aneb-Hetch Anchorage (Location)
    • Desecrated Tomb (Location)
    • Opos Kerkouros Wreck (Location)
    • Leopard Lair (Location)
    • Way of the Gabiniani (Main Quest)
    • Aya: Blade of the Goddess (Main Quest)
    • Reunion (Side Quest)
    • Predator to Prey (Side Quest)
    • Recon Work (Side Quest)
    • Loose Cargo (Side Quest)
    • Temple of Khonsou (Location)
    • Demense of Sekhem (Location)
    • Galenos' house (Location)
    • Mithidrates Roman Camp (Location)
    • Camp Nisi (Location)
    • Nile Delta Ship (Location)
    • Sap-Meh Anchorage (Location)
    • Carcer Roman Compound (Location)
    • Neith Cradle Hideout (Location)
    • Thenessos Hideout (Location)
    • Lah Hideout (Location)
    • Irsu's Huts (Location)
    • Huntress Cave (Location)
    • Zoiontegoi Shipwreck (Location)
    • Desher Bluff (Location)
    • Meketre's Cache (Location)
    • Dismal Tree (Location)
    • Elephas Remains (Location)
    • Wdj-ur Wreck (Location)
    • Abandoned Trireme (Location)
    • Kheruel's Shelter (Location)
    • Liontari Debacle (Location)
    • Chata Pond (Location)
    • Home of Nehi (Location)
    • Outskirts of the Herakleion (Location)
    • Crocodile Lair (Location)
    • Hippopotamus Lair (Location)
    • Crocodile Lair (Location)
    • Crocodile Lair (Location)
    • The Roman Camp of Jumbe (Location)
    • Ra-Horakhty Mountain Top (Location)
    • Nomarch's Tomb (Location)
    • Seshem.eff Er Aat (Location)
    • Osiris Stone Circle (Location)
    • Aquifer Oasis (Location)
    • Hotep Cavern (Location)
    • Are You Not Entertained? (Side Quest)
    • Dead in the Water (Side Quest)
    • Lure of Glory (Side Quest)
    • Founding Father (Side Quest)
    • Flea of Cyrene (Side Quest)
    • My Brother For a Horse (Side Quest)
    • Playing With Fire (Side Quest)
    • Absolute Power (Side Quest)
    • The Mousetrap (Side Quest)
    • Cat and Mouse (Side Quest)
    • Smugglers of Cyrene (Side Quest)
    • Pax Romana (Side Quest)
    • Temple of Zeus (Location)
    • Apollonion of Cyrene (Location)
    • Tomb of Battos (Location)
    • The Akropolis (Location)
    • Apollonia Roman Barracks (Location)
    • Leander's Villa (Location)
    • Cyrene Barracks (Location)
    • West Mediterranean Trireme (Location)
    • Apollonia Fields (Location)
    • Silphion Farm (Location)
    • Sunken Shrine of Aristoteles (Location)
    • Thibron Expedition Shipwreck (Location)
    • Ahment Anchorage (Location)
    • Seth-Anat Tomb (Location)
    • Qeneb too Kah'Aiye (Location)
    • Is The Hidden Ones DLC worth getting?
    • Incoming Threat (Intro Mission)
    • The Hidden Ones (Main Quest)
    • Land of Turquoise (Main Quest)
    • Where the Slaves Die (Main Quest)
    • The Walls of the Ruler (Main Quest)
    • The Setting Sun (Main Quest)
    • No Chains Too Thick (Main Quest)
    • Sic Semper Tyrannis (Main Quest)
    • The Greater Good (Main Quest)
    • Rise of Shaqilat (Side Quest)
    • Shadows of the Scarab (Side Quest)
    • The Killer Shadow (Side Quest)
    • Howls of the Dead (Side Quest)
    • Respect Thy Brother (Side Quest)
    • The Ballad of Si-Mut and Gertha (Side Quest)
    • Shards From a Star (Side Quest)
    • Castra Vetus Villam (Location)
    • Operum Tuorum Gemmam Castra (Location)
    • Paratiritirio (Location)
    • Wall-of-the-Ruler (Location)
    • Vilicus Castra (Location)
    • Fort Clostra (Location)
    • Underground Outpost (Location)
    • Klysma Oil Cache (Location)
    • Klysma Trireme (Location)
    • The Necropolis (Location)
    • Seshat's Sunken Temple (Location)
    • Reaver's Canyon (Location)
    • Temple of Thoth (Location)
    • Underwater Quarry (Location)
    • Duat Island (Location)
    • Cave of Ur'in (Location)
    • Shur Quarry (Location)
    • Forgotten Ruin (Location)
    • The Scarab's Trireme (Location)
    • The Bowels of the Sinai (Location)
    • Lake Anubis (Location)
    • Madiama (Location)
    • Seshat's Grotto (Location)
    • Deconstructed Monument (Location)
    • Castra Pyramis (Location)
    • Amenmesse Pyramid Camp (Location)
    • Faucibis Amenmesse (Location)
    • Temple of Baal (Location)
    • Red Sea Trireme (Location)
    • Castra Litore (Location)
    • The Turquoise Island (Location)
    • Point Mafkat (Location)
    • Sobek Stone Circle (Location)
    • Ankh Stone Circle (Location)
    • Klysma Nome Leopard Lair (Location)
    • Klysma Nome Ibex Lair (Location)
    • Klysma Nome Hyena Lair (Location)
    • Madiama Nome Hyena Lair (Location)
    • Madiama Nome Leopard Lair (Location)
    • Madiama Nome Leopard Lair 2 (Location)
    • Madiama Nome Vulture Lair (Location)
    • Arsinoe Nome Crocodile Lair (Location)
    • Stealthy Shrub (Papyrus Riddle)
    • Good Things Come. (Papyrus Riddle)
    • Lost Cause (Papyrus Riddle)
    • Tool of Apis (Papyrus Riddle)
    • Achievements
    • Finding More Carbon Crystals
    • First Hour FAQs
    • Achievement Guide
    • Riddle Treasures
    • Curse of the Pharaohs I (Main Quest)
    • No Honor Among Thieves (Main Quest)
    • The Lady of Grace (Main Quest)
    • Aten Rising (Main Quest)
    • The Heretic (Main Quest)
    • Curse of the Pharaohs II (Main Quest)
    • Blood in the Water (Main Quest)
    • Motherless Child (Side Quest)
    • Curse of the Pharaohs III (Main Quest)
    • King of Kings (Main Quest)
    • A Pharaoh's Heart and Name (Side Quest)
    • A Pharoah's Hemset (Main Quest)
    • A Pharaoh's Ka (Main Quest)
    • The Theban Triad (Side Quest)
    • Burnt Offerings (Side Quest)
    • A Sister's Vow (Side Quest)
    • Idol Hands (Side Quest)
    • Master of the Secret Things (Side Quest)
    • Drowned Tools (Side Quest)
    • Unfair Trade (Side Quest)
    • National Treasures (Side Quest)
    • Fish out of Water (Side Quest)
    • Laid To Rest (Side Quest)
    • Crocodile Tears (Side Quest)
    • Losers Weepers (Side Quest)
    • Perchance to Dream (Side Quest)
    • Temple of Karnak (Location)
    • Luxor (Location)
    • Thebes Garrison (Location)
    • Theban Dock Guard Post (Location)
    • Tychon's Villa (Location)
    • Eastern Gate Guard Post (Location)
    • Southern Guard Post (Location)
    • Theban Archive (Location)
    • Seized Warehouse (Location)
    • Ship Graveyard (Location)
    • Thebes Nome Crocodile Lair (Location)
    • Cursed Farm (Location)
    • Bandit Hut (Location)
    • Wrecked Felucca (Location)
    • Theban Guard Post (Location)
    • Broken Dock (Location)
    • Bonepicker Hideout (Location)
    • Thebes Nome Hippopotamus Lair (Location)
    • Temple of Hatshepsut (Location)
    • Temple of Hatshepsut Wharf (Location)
    • House of millions of years of Usermaatra-stepenra (Location)
    • The Worker's Necropolis (Location)
    • West Nile Guard Post (Location)
    • Nile Outpost (Location)
    • Nile Wharf (Location)
    • Valley of the Nobles (Location)
    • Pilgrim's Road (Location)
    • Necropolis of the Nobles (Location)
    • Necropolis of the Nobles Hideout (Location)
    • Theban Necropolis Vulture Lair (Location)
    • Colossi of Memnon (Location)
    • Shrine of Amun (Location)
    • Swenett Barracks (Location)
    • Flooded Farmhouse Hideout (Location)
    • Marshlands Hideout (Location)
    • Hunter's Dock (Location)
    • Fishing Village (Location)
    • Unknown Tomb (Location)
    • Tomb Robber's Hideout (Location)
    • Yebu Nome Crocodile Lair (Location)
    • Swenett Outpost (Location)
    • Swenett Guard Post (Location)
    • Pillager's Hideout (Location)
    • Cobra Oasis (Location)
    • Whispering Hollows Camp (Location)
    • Aladjata Hideout (Location)
    • Buried Temple Hideout (Location)
    • Disputed Well (Location)
    • Lost Quarry Hideout (Location)
    • Spring of Serqet (Location)
    • Old Kingdom Excavation Site (Location)
    • Yebu (Location)
    • Moon Curser Village (Location)
    • House of the Blue Lotus (Location)
    • Sunken Merchant Ships (Location)
    • Papyrus Estate (Location)
    • Vulture's Camp (Location)
    • Nut's Cavern Hideout (Location)
    • Waset Desert Leopard Lair (Location)
    • Yebu Nome Hyena Lair (Location)
    • Something Rotten (Main Quest)
    • Soured Libations (Main Quest)
    • Cleansing Rite (Main Quest)
    • Love or Duty (Side Quest)
    • The Palace of the Lady of Grace (Aaru)
    • Gate of Aaru (Aaru)
    • Desecrater's Camp (Location)
    • Nut's Gift (Aaru)
    • House of Libations (Aaru)
    • Nefertiti's Spring (Aaru)
    • The Leaning Statue (Aaru)
    • Lodge of Names (Aaru)
    • Royal Bakery (Aaru)
    • Foundation Offering (Aaru)
    • Brewer's Landing (Aaru)
    • Tower of Deathless Feathers (Aaru)
    • House of the Threshed Grain (Aaru)
    • Dock of the Eclipse (Aaru)
    • Serqet's Altar (Aaru)
    • Gods or Creed (Side Quest)
    • The Hawk (Side Quest)
    • The Cat (Side Quest)
    • The Ibis (Side Quest)
    • Guardians of Aten (Aten)
    • West Gate (Aten)
    • East Gate (Aten)
    • Bridge of Supplicants (Aten)
    • Wharf of the Aten (Aten)
    • Royal Palace (Aten)
    • King's House (Aten)
    • Royal Barracks (Aten)
    • Chambers of Reflection (Aten)
    • Great Temple of the Aten (Aten)
    • Shrine of Akhenaten (Aten)
    • Vault of the Aten (Aten)
    • House of the Warriors (Aten)
    • Forbidden Ruins (Aten)
    • House of the Sacred Crocodile (Aten)
    • Tomb of the Warrior (Aten)
    • Aten Crocodile Lair (Aten)
    • Serqet's Garden (Aten)
    • Shield or Blade (Side Quest)
    • A Necessary Evil (Side Quest)
    • The God's Spark (Side Quest)
    • Khepri's Amulet (Side Quest)
    • Sanctuary of Anubis (Duat)
    • Funeral Parlor Store (Duat)
    • Altar of Apep (Duat)
    • Hall of Knowing (Duat)
    • Central Gate (Duat)
    • Apep Khat (Duat)
    • Altar of the Guardians (Duat)
    • Lotus Cavern (Duat)
    • Funeral Parlor (Duat)
    • Guardian of Apep (Duat)
    • Caverns of Anubis (Duat)
    • Temple of Tutankhamun (Duat)
    • Natron Workshop (Duat)
    • Canyon Treasury (Duat)
    • Scorpion Lair (Duat)
    • Halls of Serqet (Duat)
    • Follower or Leader (Side Quest)
    • Pavilion of Judgement (Heb Sed)
    • Orion's Crater (Heb Sed)
    • Royal Guards Rest (Heb Sed)
    • Nomad's Rest (Heb Sed)
    • Gate of Heb Sed (Heb Sed)
    • Maryannu Camp (Heb Sed)
    • Valley of Scorpions (Heb Sed)
    • Caverns of the Valiant (Heb Sed)
    • The Siege of Dapur (Heb Sed)
    • Battlefield of Kadesh (Heb Sed)
    • Heb Sed Scorpion's Lair (Heb Sed)
    • Serqet's Chamber (Heb Sed)

    Seshat's Sunken Temple

    A shoreline ruin in Madiama Nome.

    Three treasures here, all of them underwater. The farthest out is just on the seafloor- a small red chest by the remains of wall.

    For the middle one, you'll need to dive down through the big square hole near the marker, then swim southeast.

    For the last, enter the underwater passage that leads right under the temple itself, and bear left at the crocodile statue.

    Snag this last treasure from a large red chest to complete the location, and don't forget you can fast travel while underwater.


    Festivals

    The most important Festival at Luxor was the Beautiful Feast of Opet. It was from this festival that the version of Amun worshiped at Luxor got his name, Amenemope. This name meant “Amun of the Opet” and the Egyptians called the temple the Southern Opet. The festival took place yearly during Akhet.

    Akhet was the season when the Nile flooded. The Egyptians associated the Opet Festival with fertility. It lasted for anywhere from eleven days to one month, depending on the period of Egypt’s history. During the festival, the statues of Amun, Mut and Khonsu at Karnak traveled to Luxor in small boats.

    © kairoinfo4u - Relief at Luxor, depicting the Beautiful Feast of Opet

    The exact meaning of some of the festival’s parts which are depicted at Luxor are difficult to determine. Scholars believe there was a sacred marriage ceremony involving the king and queen that was a part of the festival. They also think the Egyptians believed the festival restored the Pharaoh’s power. There was a ritual coronation ceremony where the king received crowns from different deities.


    Egyptian Gods: Seshat

    Seshat is the ancient Egyptian deity for wisdom, knowledge and writing whose following date back as early as the Second Dynasty. She hailed from Lower Egypt yet her following embraces the whole nation. She is the seen as a wife, daughter and sometimes a female aspect of the god of writing and moon, Thoth and mother of Hornub. Her name may also be spelled as Sesat, Seshet, Safkhet, Sesha, Sesheta or Seshata whose meaning is “she who scrivens” or “she who scribes”. She is credited to be the inventor of writing.

    She is the goddess and patron of architecture, astrology, astronomy, building, measurement mathematics, historical records and surveying. She is also patron of all types of writing like accounting, the taking of census and auditing. According to a certain myth, Seshat invented writing, but it was her spouse, Thoth who brought and taught writing to the people.

    Her Many Titles an Roles

    She is represented in art as a woman wearing a long sheath dress made of leopard, cheetah or wildcat skin that resembled that of funerary priests. However, the pattern of the spots on the hide is believed to be representative of the stars – a symbol of eternity. She often wears a headdress made of a stylized papyrus plant – symbolizing the role of papyrus plant as paper for ancient Egyptian writing. The papyrus plant may be seen with six spurs resembling that of a seven-pointed star. In some cases, her head may be seen with a seven-pointed star over two inverted horns that looked like crescent or a crescent (in homage to her moon god husband, Thoth) with two falcon feathers. This aptly connects with her epithet Sefket-Abwy meaning “She of seven points” or “Seshat opens the door of heaven for you”. Another variety is when the crescent moon degenerates into two horns. This time, Seshat is known as Safekh-Aubi that means “She who wears the Two Horns”

    She is seen as holding the palm stem that bears notches or the scribe’s pen and palate in her hands. This signified her role as record keeper of the passage of time. In fact, she is a royal scribe who keeps track of the rule of the pharaoh including his achievements, and triumphs. She also records all the speeches the pharaoh has made especially during the crowning ceremony and approves the record of foreign captives and supplies acquired in military campaigns. She is often seen offering palm tress to the pharaoh to signify a long reign. Her most important function in this aspect is recording the pharaoh’s regnal years and jubilees. She would help pharaohs celebrate 30 years of reign in the Sed Festival of the New Kingdom.

    She is also known as “Mistress of the House of Architects” and “Seshat, Foremost of Builders”. In this aspect, she is seen holding other tools including wound cords used by stretching for surveying land and structures. She assisted the pharaoh in the ritual of stretching the cord that will serve as basis for laying the foundations of a temple and other significant structures. The cord is the mason’s line used to measure the dimensions of the building.

    She is known as the “Mistress of the House of Books”, “She who is Foremost in the Library”, and “Mistress of Books” because she guarded the library of the gods. She is often seen arranging Thoth’s scrolls and spells. Because of this, she became the patron of all earthly libraries and librarians.

    As a funerary goddess, she is believed to keep the memories of the dead alive by keeping a tab of the happenings of the life of each person by writing down accounts of their lives. She has the power to grant the pharaoh immortality by writing his name in the Tree of Life.

    Her priests were known guardians of scrolls where the most important knowledge and spells are preserved and handed down to generations. This made her the goddess of history as well.

    There is no evidence of a temple ever built to her honor. However, there is proof to her following because in the fourth dynasty, on his Slab Stela, Wep-em-nefret was known as the Overseer of the Royal Scribes and Priest of Seshat whose principal sanctuary was found in Heliopolis.


    Seshat, Luxor Temple - History

    The notion that Seshat is the patron goddess of cannabis is not so far-fetched. Her symbol is among the oldest hieroglyphs, and although cannabis is not native to North Africa, it would have grown well there—and been available through trade routes. Indications for use of cannabis and instructions for preparation are in some of the oldest medical texts in existence. [i]

    Temple walls depict festive royal spirituals featuring beer, wine, psychoactive concoctions [ii] , ceremonial sacrifices, and exotic dancers including the Seshat priestess herself—turning heads in a dazzling leopard-skin number favored by funerary priests. Lotus buds soaked in wine produced a spiritual effect of such importance that much of their art and architecture was devoted to the flower.

    No temples to Seshat have ever been found, and the psychoactive use of cannabis in ancient Egypt is thought to be less well documented—or maybe the truth is all over the walls and we just can’t see it through the haze of drug war propaganda.

    Prohibition did not start with the banning of cannabis in the 1930s. It began many centuries earlier with religious edicts that forbid—on pain of death—the use of psychoactive plants as spiritual sacraments. The industrial revolution went even further by creating a propaganda campaign that turned the world against natural medicines, and by outlawing plants that could deliver euphoric and/or spiritual sensations.

    That’s where Seshat comes in. We know the ancient Egyptians were intelligent, spiritual, and as a culture, very successful (For the United States to be half as long-lived, our Constitution would have had to date back to the mid-700s AD). If cannabis was revered in those ancient times the way it is today (mostly in the shadows by people you’d never think…) that’s one more body slam against the crumbling walls of prohibition.

    Establishing the Proof

    Here are six Seshat emblems from their golden age The New Kingdom (c.1550-c.1069) [1]

    Artistic interpretations and dynastic variations are an excellent measure for eliminating popular guesses. For example, if the top piece looks like a bow at Luxor and like horns at Karnak, it probably isn't representating either one the explanation must work across all variations. (Condition 1)

    Since the two parts of the emblem never appear separately, the explanation must describe how the images work together to symbolize one concept. (Condition 2)

    Seshat was the deification of wisdom the goddess of writing, astronomy, architecture, and mathematics. She was an exotic dancer with spirit-realm connections. In the Coffin Texts, a collection of funerary spells written beginning in the First Intermediate Period (c.2181-c.2055), spell 10 states: Seshat opens the door of heaven for you. [iii] The explanation for the symbol must reflect the whole of Seshat’s complex character. (Condition 3)

    The human embodiment of the goddess was a royal priestess—a smart, creative and powerful top advisor to the king the keeper of records and chief architect responsible for laying down measurements for royal projects. The explanation must plausibly reflect the life and duties of an actual Seshat priestess. (Condition 4)

    First Inquiry: What is that star-shaped thing?

    It’s not a star because the base of the emblem is often not star-shaped at all. Same for palm leaves. As for papyrus, that is the least likely candidate since the hieroglyph for that sacred plant is everywhere and it looks nothing like the Seshat symbol.

    Cannabis hemp leaves have been called a match, but that food and fiber cultivar cannot begin to capture the full color spectrum of this goddess and her earth-bound representative.

    Cannabis leaves vary greatly between strains, but point counts of 5, 7 and 9 are common. Here are three representatives collected at legal grows in New England. [3]

    Although the emblem renderings above differ widely in shape and artistic style, cannabis is a perfect match for every image in the set. This satisfies the first condition of the proof.

    Second inquiry: How does the cannabis leaf work with the image above?

    Unlike the leaf, the upper shape is portrayed in a variety of ways. In the hieroglyph and in the emblem from the Red Chapel of Queen Hatshepsut (B) the top piece appears to be flowing down and around the leaf. When the top is closed, either with a point (A & F) or a cap (C), the image still seems to be coming down from above, like a falling veil.

    Given that the message must be evident in all cases, this wide range of interpretations suggests that the image on top is symbolic rather than physical. It also suggests that the answer lies in what the designs have in common.

    In every carving the upper shape flows down from above and around an image that always looks like a cannabis leaf. That leaf always rises straight from the crown of Seshat’s head, and always stands at attention under the veil.

    The leaf is cannabis, and the veil is the wisdom it bestows. Taken together the two images represent the source of Seshat’s creative ideas, cosmic intuition and spiritual connection. This satisfies the second condition.

    Third inquiry: Does this explanation reflect the whole of the Seshat mythology?

    This might be a hard pill to swallow for nations of people raised to just say no, but nothing about this smart, colorful and spirited multi-tasker is inconsistent with cannabis use.

    This ancient truth is reflected in the lives of creative thinkers and people of action like Steve Jobs, John Lennon, and in the words of the late astronomer, mathematician, philosopher and novelist Carl Sagan. Writing anonymously as Mr. X in the groundbreaking 1969 book Marijuana Reconsidered, Sagan described cannabis as a spiritual conduit for ideas and creative expression:

    "I do not consider myself a religious person in the usual sense, but there is a religious aspect to some highs. The heightened sensitivity in all areas gives me a feeling of communion with my surroundings, both animate and inanimate…Many but not all my cannabis trips have somewhere in them a symbolism significant to me…a kind of mandala embossed on the high. Free-associating to this mandala, both visually and as plays on words, has produced a very rich array of insights.” [iv]

    People who use cannabis to spark insights and creativity (artists, professionals, clergy, teachers…mostly all in hiding) would agree that the whole of Seshat—the writer, the spiritualist, the dirty dancer, as well as the no-nonsense nail-the-numbers professional getting baked on the job—are all well within the lifestyles and possibilities of people who use cannabis. This satisfies the third condition.

    Final inquiry: Does this explanation relate to real life in ancient Egypt?

    Yes. Cannabis was known as medicine and would have been available to people with resources and trade connections. The famously fertile delta would have supported local cultivation, and the variety of point configurations in the drawings supports the notion of favored strains. The notion of a private palace home grow is also consistent with the mythology Seshat was known as a secretive goddess who preferred the company of royals. [v] This satisfies the final condition.

    This is more than an academic exercise. Cannabis prohibition is a war of words and images, and until quite recently our government was in total control. History will record the irony the very communication system that was being used to broadcast lies about this so-called recreational drug was suddenly the means by which the people could learn and share the truth about what cannabis really is.

    As we head into this new century, few things represent the future better than cannabis, an ancient plant that can deliver food, fiber, fuel, medicine, inspiration, and an occasional laugh. Seshat reminds us that sometimes the best way forward is to look back and learn from the wise ones who came before.

    Carl Hedberg is a writer, speaker and medicinal use explorer working with filmmakers to bring the truth about cannabis to the big screen. (see http://www.dailycamera.com/guest-opinions/ci_25298250/lights-camera-cannabis )

    From the lecture Cannabis Rising: Truth and healing on the front lines of the battle to restore our right to choose. Twitter @cannabisrising


    Seshat, Luxor Temple - History

    The notion that Seshat is the patron goddess of cannabis is not so far-fetched. Her symbol is among the oldest hieroglyphs, and although cannabis is not native to North Africa, it would have grown well there—and been available through trade routes. Indications for use of cannabis and instructions for preparation are in some of the oldest medical texts in existence. [i]

    Temple walls depict festive royal spirituals featuring beer, wine, psychoactive concoctions [ii] , ceremonial sacrifices, and exotic dancers including the Seshat priestess herself—turning heads in a dazzling leopard-skin number favored by funerary priests. Lotus buds soaked in wine produced a spiritual effect of such importance that much of their art and architecture was devoted to the flower.

    No temples to Seshat have ever been found, and the psychoactive use of cannabis in ancient Egypt is thought to be less well documented—or maybe the truth is all over the walls and we just can’t see it through the haze of drug war propaganda.

    Prohibition did not start with the banning of cannabis in the 1930s. It began many centuries earlier with religious edicts that forbid—on pain of death—the use of psychoactive plants as spiritual sacraments. The industrial revolution went even further by creating a propaganda campaign that turned the world against natural medicines, and by outlawing plants that could deliver euphoric and/or spiritual sensations.

    That’s where Seshat comes in. We know the ancient Egyptians were intelligent, spiritual, and as a culture, very successful (For the United States to be half as long-lived, our Constitution would have had to date back to the mid-700s AD). If cannabis was revered in those ancient times the way it is today (mostly in the shadows by people you’d never think…) that’s one more body slam against the crumbling walls of prohibition.

    Establishing the Proof

    Here are six Seshat emblems from their golden age The New Kingdom (c.1550-c.1069) [1]

    Artistic interpretations and dynastic variations are an excellent measure for eliminating popular guesses. For example, if the top piece looks like a bow at Luxor and like horns at Karnak, it probably isn't representating either one the explanation must work across all variations. (Condition 1)

    Since the two parts of the emblem never appear separately, the explanation must describe how the images work together to symbolize one concept. (Condition 2)

    Seshat was the deification of wisdom the goddess of writing, astronomy, architecture, and mathematics. She was an exotic dancer with spirit-realm connections. In the Coffin Texts, a collection of funerary spells written beginning in the First Intermediate Period (c.2181-c.2055), spell 10 states: Seshat opens the door of heaven for you. [iii] The explanation for the symbol must reflect the whole of Seshat’s complex character. (Condition 3)

    The human embodiment of the goddess was a royal priestess—a smart, creative and powerful top advisor to the king the keeper of records and chief architect responsible for laying down measurements for royal projects. The explanation must plausibly reflect the life and duties of an actual Seshat priestess. (Condition 4)

    First Inquiry: What is that star-shaped thing?

    It’s not a star because the base of the emblem is often not star-shaped at all. Same for palm leaves. As for papyrus, that is the least likely candidate since the hieroglyph for that sacred plant is everywhere and it looks nothing like the Seshat symbol.

    Cannabis hemp leaves have been called a match, but that food and fiber cultivar cannot begin to capture the full color spectrum of this goddess and her earth-bound representative.

    Cannabis leaves vary greatly between strains, but point counts of 5, 7 and 9 are common. Here are three representatives collected at legal grows in New England. [3]

    Although the emblem renderings above differ widely in shape and artistic style, cannabis is a perfect match for every image in the set. This satisfies the first condition of the proof.

    Second inquiry: How does the cannabis leaf work with the image above?

    Unlike the leaf, the upper shape is portrayed in a variety of ways. In the hieroglyph and in the emblem from the Red Chapel of Queen Hatshepsut (B) the top piece appears to be flowing down and around the leaf. When the top is closed, either with a point (A & F) or a cap (C), the image still seems to be coming down from above, like a falling veil.

    Given that the message must be evident in all cases, this wide range of interpretations suggests that the image on top is symbolic rather than physical. It also suggests that the answer lies in what the designs have in common.

    In every carving the upper shape flows down from above and around an image that always looks like a cannabis leaf. That leaf always rises straight from the crown of Seshat’s head, and always stands at attention under the veil.

    The leaf is cannabis, and the veil is the wisdom it bestows. Taken together the two images represent the source of Seshat’s creative ideas, cosmic intuition and spiritual connection. This satisfies the second condition.

    Third inquiry: Does this explanation reflect the whole of the Seshat mythology?

    This might be a hard pill to swallow for nations of people raised to just say no, but nothing about this smart, colorful and spirited multi-tasker is inconsistent with cannabis use.

    This ancient truth is reflected in the lives of creative thinkers and people of action like Steve Jobs, John Lennon, and in the words of the late astronomer, mathematician, philosopher and novelist Carl Sagan. Writing anonymously as Mr. X in the groundbreaking 1969 book Marijuana Reconsidered, Sagan described cannabis as a spiritual conduit for ideas and creative expression:

    "I do not consider myself a religious person in the usual sense, but there is a religious aspect to some highs. The heightened sensitivity in all areas gives me a feeling of communion with my surroundings, both animate and inanimate…Many but not all my cannabis trips have somewhere in them a symbolism significant to me…a kind of mandala embossed on the high. Free-associating to this mandala, both visually and as plays on words, has produced a very rich array of insights.” [iv]

    People who use cannabis to spark insights and creativity (artists, professionals, clergy, teachers…mostly all in hiding) would agree that the whole of Seshat—the writer, the spiritualist, the dirty dancer, as well as the no-nonsense nail-the-numbers professional getting baked on the job—are all well within the lifestyles and possibilities of people who use cannabis. This satisfies the third condition.

    Final inquiry: Does this explanation relate to real life in ancient Egypt?

    Yes. Cannabis was known as medicine and would have been available to people with resources and trade connections. The famously fertile delta would have supported local cultivation, and the variety of point configurations in the drawings supports the notion of favored strains. The notion of a private palace home grow is also consistent with the mythology Seshat was known as a secretive goddess who preferred the company of royals. [v] This satisfies the final condition.

    This is more than an academic exercise. Cannabis prohibition is a war of words and images, and until quite recently our government was in total control. History will record the irony the very communication system that was being used to broadcast lies about this so-called recreational drug was suddenly the means by which the people could learn and share the truth about what cannabis really is.

    As we head into this new century, few things represent the future better than cannabis, an ancient plant that can deliver food, fiber, fuel, medicine, inspiration, and an occasional laugh. Seshat reminds us that sometimes the best way forward is to look back and learn from the wise ones who came before.

    Carl Hedberg is a writer, speaker and medicinal use explorer working with filmmakers to bring the truth about cannabis to the big screen. (see http://www.dailycamera.com/guest-opinions/ci_25298250/lights-camera-cannabis )

    From the lecture Cannabis Rising: Truth and healing on the front lines of the battle to restore our right to choose. Twitter @cannabisrising


    Seshat and the Tree Spirits

    Seshat is named as one of the Seven Hathors. The Ancient Egyptians saw her as the Goddess of writing, historical records, accounting and mathematics, measurement and architecture. She was depicted with a headdress that is also her hieroglyph which may represent either a stylized flower or seven pointed star on a standard that is beneath a set of down-turned horns. The horns seem to originally have been a crescent, linking Seshat to the moon and to her partner Thoth, the God of the Moon, Writing and knowledge.

    Seshat at Luxor

    Seshat was believed to appear to assist the pharaoh at various times, and she kept a record of his life. She kept track of each pharaoh and the period for which he ruled and the speeches made during the crowning rituals. It was as ‘Mistress of the House of Architects’ that she helped the pharaoh set the foundations of temples with indication that she set the axis by the aid of the stars.

    There are no temples to Seshat (that have been found) however she did have a priesthood in early times. Along with her Priestesses, there were Priests in the order – the Slab Stela of 4th Dynasty Prince Wepemnefret (son of Khufu) gives him the title of Overseer of the Royal Scribes, Priest of Seshat.

    The Egyptians believed that Seshat invented writing, while Thoth taught writing to mankind. She was known as ‘Mistress of the Great Library’ which indicates that she also took care of Thoth’s library of spells (Heku!) and scrolls.

    Pharaoh Hatshepsut (one of the few female Pharaohs) depicted both Seshat and Thoth as those who made the inventory of her treasures. Thoth made a note of the quantity and Seshat verified the figures.

    Seshat was the only female scribe that has been found (so far) actually writing. Other women have been found holding a scribe’s writing brush and palette – showing that they could read and write – but these women were never shown in the act of writing itself. She was the First and Foremost female scribe – accountant, historian and architect to both the pharaoh and the gods. She was the female goddess of positions belonging mostly to men.

    Seshat’s themes are honor, learning, history, time and Karma. She reminds us that to change both our collective and our individual futures, we must first learn from the past. She was profoundly and powerfully associated with the integration of heaven and earth, material and spiritual. Seshat is almost like the ‘Egyptian Fairy Godmother’ and her magic wand with its seven pointed star was the symbol which represented the source of all creative ideas. Her powers of cause and effect were legendary in the earliest times of pre-Dynastic Egypt.

    Seshat is the essence of cosmic intuition, creating the geometry of the heavens alongside her partner Thoth.

    With all this said, Seshat came to Ankh-sen-Aset in a dream and reminded her that the spirits and magic of the very old Manzanita trees recently felled next to our Northern California Sanctuary are crying out to be heard and seen. The Tree Spirits wish to be integrated and honored, and in doing so, we will be honored with their wisdom and power. Never let anything, especially magic, go to waste!

    The manzanita pathway before devastation

    Ancient records proclaim the timeless message of Seshat and invite us to rediscover the wisdom that is imparted to humanity – if we will listen.

    Each Tree Spirit seems to resemble an Animal Spirit


    Transformation of the role of Seshat as a scribe

    If we notice the depictions of Seshat throughout the whole period of ancient Egypt, we cannot overlook the transformations of her role or we can say additions to her role as a scribe. During the Old Kingdom, she can be seen engaging with the recording of different types of animal herds.

    It was the Middle Kingdom from when she is seen recording the names of foreign prisoners. There are scenes from the New Kingdom where the royal affiliation of Seshat is depicted through her engagement with the recording of pharaoh’s regnal years & jubilees on the leaves of the sacred Persea tree.


    Seshat

    Lady of the Library.

    Cult Center: Throughout Egypt

    Attributes: Goddess of reading, writing, architecture and arithmetic. She plays an important role in a ceremony called stretching the cord in which she assists the pharaoh in locating and laying out the corners of a temple. She was also responsible for recording the names and tribute of captives taken in battle. We often find her recording the pharaohs name on the tree of life or recording the royal jubilees on a notched palm branch.

    Representation: A woman wearing a panther skin, the ornament on her head consists of a star under a bow or cow horns. She is often holding a palm branch with the symbol of a jubilee pavilion hanging from it.

    The next god is Seth List of Mythological Deities


    Watch the video: Seshat Nishma - Mejance Jachram 2017 (May 2022).

Video, Sitemap-Video, Sitemap-Videos