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Siege of Lerida, 15 April-14 May 1810

Siege of Lerida, 15 April-14 May 1810


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Siege of Lerida, 15 April-14 May 1810

The siege of Lerida of 15 April-14 May 1810 was one of a series of sieges that saw the French extend their control over eastern Spain, and removed a major obstacle on the road between Saragossa and Barcelona. In 1810 the town of Lerida was confined to the western bank of the River Segre. Just to the west of the river two steep hills rise from the plain. The citadel of Lerida was built on the northern hill, with the town between that hill and the river. On the southern hill were Fort Garden and the San Fernando and El Pilar redoubts. Unlike many Spanish cities at this period there was no suburb on the eastern bank of the river, but the eastern end of the bridge over the Segre was defended by a strong tête-du-pont. The only vulnerable part of the town was the northern wall, between the river and the citadel. In April 1810 the town contained a garrison of 8,000 men under the command of Major-General Garcia Conde, who had earned fame after running a supply convoy into Gerona during the third siege of that city.

Marshal Suchet was able to gather 13,000 men for the siege of Lerida. This did not give him enough men to surround the city with regular siege lines. Musnier, with 4,000 infantry and most of the cavalry, was posted on the eastern bank of the Segre, to guard the tête-du-pont, and watch for any relieving army coming from Catalonia or Valencia. A screen of cavalry was placed around the southern side of the city. Finally Habert’s, Buget’s and Vergès’s brigades were placed around the western and northern walls of the city. The two parts of the army were connected by a flying bridge two miles above the town. Suchet intended to attack the north western corner of the town.

The French army took up its positions around Lerida on 15 April, and opened their trenches on 29 April. Part of the delay was caused by the approach of a Spanish army under General O’Donnell. This force left Tarragona on 20 April, the day after Suchet had sent Musnier east to investigate rumours that an army was approaching along the road from Barcelona. Believing that Musnier was still absent, on 23 April O’Donnell approached Larida, apparently not expected a serious fight. Unfortunately Musnier had returned to Lerida on 22 April, and inflicted a heavy defeat on O’Donnell (combat of Margalef).

The French began their bombardment on 7 May, concentrating their fire on the Carmen and Magdalena bastions, the weakest part of the defences, and by 13 May they had created a breach in the walls. On the night of 12-13 May, at the second attempt, the French captured the San Fernando and El Pilar redoubts, at the opposite end of the town, apparently to prevent Garcia Conde from using Fort Garden as a final refuge.

On the evening of 13 May the French attacked the breach, and were soon inside the walls. As was becoming standard practice, the Spanish had created an inner line of redoubts and fortified houses behind the walls, but this time the French were able to fight their way past this second line and into the city. Garcia Conde withdrew his garrison back into the citadel, where he hoped to make a final stand. Suchet had prepared for this, and had a particularly cold-blooded plan in place to prevent a length siege of the castle. As his soldiers entered Lerida they formed a cordon around the city, and forced the civilian population, at gunpoint, to join the retreat into the citadel. According to Suchet’s own memoirs, scores of civilians were shot by the French troops during this phase of the siege.

Once the garrison and civilian population were trapped in the citadel, Suchet began to bombard it with his mortars and howitzers, killing most of the 500 civilians to die during the siege. Garcia Conde could only stand one night of this, and at noon on 14 May the citadel surrendered. Soon after the siege Garcia Conde decided to pledge loyalty to King Joseph, probably in the belief that the Spanish patriot cause was doomed. There is no evidence that he betrayed Lerida, or that his conduct was affected by any plans to change sides. During the siege he turned down two calls to surrender, including one after the defeat of O’Donnell’s relieving army.

The capture of Lerida was followed by that of Mequinenza, at the highest navigable point on the Ebro. The French were free to turn south to attack Tortosa, at the mouth of the Ebro. Suchet’s successes even began to demoralise the guerrillas of Aragon, but despite this they remained active, preventing Suchet from ever feeling entirely secure in Aragon.

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Siege of Mequinenza

The siege of Mequinenza (15 May to 8 June 1810) saw a 16,000-man Imperial French corps commanded by Louis Gabriel Suchet invest a 1,000-strong Spanish garrison under Colonel Carbon. Mequinenza and its castle were captured by the French after an operation lasting about three weeks. [2] The action occurred during the Peninsular War, which formed part of the Napoleonic Wars. Mequinenza is located at the confluence of the Ebro and Segre Rivers about 211 kilometres (131 mi) west of Barcelona.


El setge [ modifica ]

En el moment de l'assetjament la guarnició de Tortosa és de 8.000 a 9.000 mil homes de tropa i voluntaris. Tortosa té en aquells moments de 10 a 12 mil habitants.

Bloquejada la plaça des del 4 de juliol de 1810 amb l'aparició de la divisió de Anne Gilbert de La Val Β] a la riba dreta de l'Ebre, s'iniciaren els primers enfrontaments.

El setge del general Louis Gabriel Suchet va començar el 15 de desembre de 1810. Després d'intensos bombardejos, la nit de l'1 de gener de 1811, els francesos obriren diverses bretxes a la muralla. Llavors la ciutat capitulà i signà la rendició davant del III Exèrcit napoleònic. Γ] Durant el període d'enfrontament hi va haver més d'un miler de morts per contra d'alguns centenars entre les tropes franceses.


Cerco de Lérida

No cerco de Lérida de 29 de abril a 13 de maio de 1810, [ 1 ] um exército imperial francês sob o comando de Louis Gabriel Suchet sitiou uma guarnição espanhola comandada por Jaime García Conde. Em 13 de maio, García Conde se rendeu com seus 7.000 soldados sobreviventes. Lleida (Lérida) é uma cidade da parte ocidental da Catalunha. Margalef está situada na Rota N-240 aproximadamente 10 km (6 mi) a sudeste de Lérida. O cerco aconteceu durante a Guerra Peninsular, parte das Guerras Napoleônicas.

Depois de uma tentativa infrutífera de tomar o Valência em março, Suchet decidiu se mover contra Lérida. Na metade de abril, os franceses estavam antes da cidade. Suchet ouviu dizer que um exército espanhol liderado por Henry O'Donnell estava tentando interferir na operação planejada. A coluna de O'Donnell foi interceptada e na Batalha de Margalef em 23 de abril, foi derrotada com pesadas perdas. Esta ação foi seguida por um cerco no qual Suchet utilizou métodos brutais para trazer uma rendição rápida. Em 13 de maio, García Conde capitulou com seus 7.000 soldados sobreviventes. Este evento foi o começo de uma série surpreendente de cercos bem-sucedidos de 1810 a 1812, nos quais as tropas de Suchet pareciam invencíveis.


Els espanyols van ser incapaços d'expulsar els francesos per la seva derrota a la batalla de Tudela el 23 de novembre de 1808 i els francesos avançaren de nou sobre Madrid derrotant pocs dies després als espanyols en la batalla de Somosierra, entrant a la capital el 4 de desembre. Soult rep ordres de l'emperador de perseguir i derrotar l'exèrcit anglès del general Moore, que ha de reembarcar durant la batalla de La Corunya. [1] Saragossa quedà assetjada, [2]

Amb Saragossa en mans franceses, Suchet va planejar avançar contra les ciutats espanyoles de Lleida i Mequinensa, però va rebre ordres d'anar directament contra València. El rei Josep Bonaparte estava en procés de prendre Andalusia i va creure que els exèrcits espanyols estaven a punt d'enfonsar-se. Suchet va obeir de mala gana el comandament del rei i el seu exèrcit va arribar als afores de València el 6 de març. Per manca d'artilleria i enfront d'un determinat conjunt de defensors, el general francès es va retirar després de bloquejar la ciutat per només quatre dies. De tornada a la seva base a Aragó, Suchet va passar unes setmanes suprimint guerrillers espanyols abans que estigués a punt per marxar a Lleida. [3]

Saint-Cyr derrotà les tropes de Joan Miquel de Vives i Feliu a la Batalla de Llinars i entren a la capital de Catalunya el 17 de desembre de 1808. Amb el front estabilitzat fins a la batalla de Valls, el 25 de febrer de 1809, la derrota espanyola permet que el 26 de febrer les tropes franceses entrin a Reus, i la mort de Teodoro Reding feu que Antonio Malet de Coupigny prengués el comandament de l'exèrcit espanyol a Catalunya interinament. [4] Immediatament després, Girona, la defensa de la qual fou dirigida pel general Àlvarez de Castro, assetjada per Saint-Cyr entre maig i desembre de 1809. El 10 de desembre Girona capitulava davant el nou cap de les tropes franceses, el mariscal Charles Pierre François Augereau, duc de Castiglione. Després de la desfeta de Vic, el general O'Donnell aconseguí reunir 15.000 homes i el dia 22 d'abril sortí de Tarragona i, passant per Montblanc, es dirigí cap a Lleida, amenaçada per les forces del mariscal Suchet, sent interceptat i derrotat a la batalla de Margalef el 23 d'abril.

Havent eliminat l'exèrcit de socors de O'Donnell, Louis Gabriel Suchet va dirigir-se a Lleida i va exigir la rendició de la ciutat, però Jaime García Conde va rebutjar l'oferiment. La ciutat, a la riba oest del riu Segre amb un cap de pont al costat de l'est. El Turó de la Seu Vella al nord el coronava la ciutadella mentre que al turó de Gardeny, cap al sud es trobava el Castell de Gardeny i dos reductes. El mur nord entre la ciutadella i el Segre era particularment feble.

El setge formal va començar el 29 d'abril [5] i el 7 de maig va tenir una bateria de canons pesats en acció [6] Suchet va situar els homes de Musnier i la majoria de la seva cavalleria a la vora de l'est per vigilar les forces d'ajuda. Les tropes d'Habert es van situar a les murades septentrionals i occidentals a la riba oest. Un pont temporal connectava les dues parts del cos assetjant. [7]

Les defenses de Lleida no estaven preparades per resistir l'artilleria de Suchet, [6] que va atacar els bastions del Carme i la Magdalena causant-los greus danys. En sis dies, els canons van aconseguir obrir una bretxa a la muralla. Mentrestant, els francesos van atacar els forts al turó sud. Després d'una repulsió, els francesos van prendre els dos reductes la nit del 12 al 13 de maig. Al vespre del 13 de maig, les columnes d'assalt van atacar i prendre la bretxa. Els defensors havien construït una nova línia darrere de la bretxa, però els francesos també van superar aquestes defenses, i García Conde va ordenar que els seus soldats es retiressin a la ciutadella. [7]

Sense escrúpols morals, Suchet va ordenar als seus soldats que conduïssin la població civil sota les muralles del castell. [6] Qualsevol persona que va resistir va ser assassinada instantàniament pels soldats francesos. [7] Després que el comandant espanyol va admetre als no combatents a la ciutadella, els francesos van començar un bombardeig d'angle alt del castell, [6] usant obusos i morters que van matar a la majoria dels 500 civils que van morir durant el setge. [6] Horroritzat per la matança [6] García Conde va sol·licitar termes al migdia del 14 de maig. [7]

La rendició va portar a 7.000 soldats espanyols com a presoners. Durant el setge, la guarnició espanyola va patir 1.700 morts i ferits. Entre els trofeus francesos hi havia sis generals, 307 oficials i 105 peces d'artilleria. Les baixes franceses eren d'uns 1.000 morts i ferits. [5]

La presa de Lleida va ser l'inici d'una sèrie de setges reeixits de l'exèrcit de Suchet. Mequinensa va caure el 5 de juny de 1810, [6] Tortosa el 2 de gener de 1811, [8] Tarragona el 28 de juny, que li va valer a Suchet per ser nomenat Mariscal de França, Sagunt el 25 d'octubre de 1811, València el 9 de gener de 1812 i poc després Dénia i Peníscola, fent de Suchet senyor de València.


Background [ edit | edit source ]

During the Second Siege of Zaragoza, its Spanish defenders bitterly resisted the French for many months. The city finally fell on 20 February 1809 and its large garrison was killed or captured. With most of Aragon's defenders wiped out, the French III Corps under General of Division Jean-Andoche Junot and V Corps under Marshal Édouard Mortier rapidly conquered the Ebro River valley. The powerful fortress of Jaca meekly surrendered to Mortier on 21 March 1809 and the towns of Monzón and Fraga were soon occupied. However, the castle of Mequinenza declined to surrender when summoned by a French column. After Mortier in person appeared before the castle with a brigade of infantry, its commander again refused to capitulate. The French marshal withdrew, planning to return after conquering the remainder of eastern Aragon. However, Emperor Napoleon issued orders on 5 April for the V Corps to withdraw to Tudela. The War of the Fifth Coalition was about to start and the emperor knew he might need Mortier's troops to reinforce his army in Germany. This left the III Corps to hold Aragon with only 15,000 troops. At the same time the emperor replaced Junot with General of Division Louis Gabriel Suchet. Ώ]


Contents

When the Dos de Mayo (2 May) uprisings took place in Spain in 1808, Napoleon at first thought that they were a series of isolated uprisings and despatched a number of small columns to quell them. In North Eastern Spain Marshall Bessières assigned General Lefebvre-Desnouettes to quell the revolt in Aragon. Eventually his column included 5,000 infantry, 1,000 cavalry and two artillery batteries. Lefebvre quickly discovered, however, that the revolt was much more widespread than had been believed.

The Spanish side was led by General José de Palafox who was the second son in an aristocratic Spanish family. He was appointed Captain-General of Aragon in late May. He successfully raised a force of 7,500 troops but was handicapped by the lack of experience of these troops with only about 300 experienced cavalry and a few gunners.

Palafox made a few attempts to stop the French from even reaching Zaragoza. His elder brother the Marquis of Lazan attempted to stop them at Tudela on 8 June 1808 and again at Mallen on 13 June 1808. Palafox then sent out a force of 6,000 but was defeated again at Alagon on 14 June 1808 and Palafox himself was wounded. Finally the remaining Spanish forces retreated into Zaragoza.


Sommaire

Le même mois, Suchet envisage de monter une opération contre les forteresses espagnoles de Lérida et Mequinenza. Cependant, des ordres lui parviennent qui lui enjoignent de se porter directement contre Valence. Le roi Joseph Bonaparte est à ce moment en pleine conquête de l'Andalousie et croit les forces espagnoles aux abois. Suchet doit obéir à contrecœur aux ordres du roi et son armée atteint les faubourgs de Valence le 6 mars 1810. Dépourvu de l'artillerie nécessaire à un siège et faisant face à une résistance espagnole déterminée, le général français doit se retirer après un blocus de seulement quatre jours. De retour en Aragon, Suchet passe quelques semaines à réduire les bandes de guérilleros espagnols avant de se préparer à marcher sur Lérida [ 2 ] .

L'armée commandée par Suchet arrive en vue de Lérida le 15 avril 1810 [ 2 ] . Le commandant français dispose pour cette opération de 13 000 soldats organisés en 18 bataillons et de huit escadrons soutenus par 30 pièces d'artillerie. La 2 e division de Musnier se compose des 114 e , 115 e et 121 e de ligne forts de trois bataillons chacun, de deux bataillons polonais de la légion de la Vistule et de deux batteries d'artillerie à pied. La 3 e division du général Habert est également présente avec le 5 e léger et le 116 e de ligne à deux bataillons chacun ainsi que le 117 e de ligne à trois bataillons et deux batteries d'artillerie à pied. La cavalerie de Boussart qui accompagne est formée du 4 e régiment de hussards et du 13 e régiment de cuirassiers auxquels vient s'ajouter une batterie d'artillerie à cheval. En face, la forteresse de Lérida est équipée de 105 canons et défendue par une garnison espagnole de 8 000 hommes (dont 350 artilleurs) aux ordres du major-général Jaime García Conde [ 3 ] . Cet officier général a déjà participé activement au conflit en étant notamment parvenu, au mois de septembre 1809, à ravitailler la place de Gérone assiégée par les troupes françaises en se frayant un passage à travers leurs lignes [ 4 ] .

Alors qu'il se prépare à investir Lérida, Suchet apprend qu'une colonne espagnole de secours sous les ordres du général Enrique José O'Donnell est à proximité de la ville. Pour l'intercepter, il envoie à sa rencontre la division Musnier. Après plusieurs heures de vaines recherches, cette dernière rebrousse chemin vers Lérida et installe son bivouac à 5 km de la ville dans la soirée du 22 avril. Sans que Suchet s'en rende compte, l'armée d'O'Donnell, échappant à la détection, a son campement tout proche [ 2 ] . Selon Digby Smith, les forces espagnoles se montent à 7 000 soldats, dont 300 cavaliers et six canons [ 3 ] , mais l'historien David Gates estime plutôt leur effectif à 8 000 hommes [ 5 ] . La division Musnier (5 500 hommes), allégée du 121 e de ligne, a cependant avec elle les 4 e régiment de hussards et 13 e régiment de cuirassiers, 500 cavaliers au total [ 3 ] .

Le 23 avril, la division espagnole d'avant-garde dirigée par le major-général Miguel Ibarrola Gonzáles entre en contact avec les troupes françaises du général Harispe dans le secteur est de Lérida. Harispe, malgré son infériorité numérique, parvient à contenir les assaillants espagnols jusqu'à ce que la division Musnier débouche à son tour sur le champ de bataille. Ibarrola recule rapidement, poursuivi énergiquement par Musnier. Au hameau de Margalef, les Espagnols tentent d'enrayer la progression française mais ils sont chargés de flanc par le 13 e cuirassiers. La division Ibarrola se désintègre sous les coups de la grosse cavalerie française qui en profite pour sabrer les fuyards. Alors que le carnage vient de s'achever, le général O'Donnell arrive à la tête de sa deuxième division. Le commandant espagnol ordonne immédiatement le repli mais les cuirassiers rattrapent son arrière-garde et la mettent en pièces, infligeant de nouvelles pertes [ 6 ] .

La journée se solde par environ 500 tués ou blessés et 2 500 prisonniers dans les rangs espagnols, ainsi que trois canons et quatre drapeaux. Les Français déplorent 100 pertes, toutes du 13 e régiment de cuirassiers. L'infanterie française, bien que présente, n'a pris aucune part à la bataille [ 3 ] . Gates fait état quant à lui de 3 000 prisonniers espagnols et chiffrent les pertes françaises à 120 hommes [ 5 ] .

Après cette victoire, Suchet peut commencer l'investissement de Lérida. Une sommation est faite aux assiégés mais la réponse de Garcia Condé est négative [ 5 ] . La ville est protégée à l'ouest par la Sègre et dispose d'une tête de pont sur le côté est de la rivière. Lérida est également entourée par deux collines, une au nord couronnée par une citadelle et une autre au sud sur laquelle se dresse le fort Garden et deux redoutes. La muraille nord entre la citadelle et la Sègre est particulièrement vulnérable. Suchet décide de poster la division Musnier et le gros de sa cavalerie sur la rive est pour prévenir une éventuelle intervention espagnole de l'extérieur. Dans le même temps, les troupes du général Habert se déploient sur la rive opposée et prennent place sous les murs nord et ouest de Lérida. Un pont temporaire sur la Sègre relie les deux contingents [ 7 ] . Les opérations débutent formellement le 29 avril 1810 [ 3 ] . Suchet fait acheminer son train de siège et dès le 7 mai, les premiers tirs sont dirigés sur la ville [ 5 ] .

Face aux canons de Suchet, les défenses de Lérida se révèlent insuffisantes [ 5 ] . Les pièces françaises prennent les bastions de Carmen et de Magdalena sous leur feu et leur causent de sérieux dommages. Après six jours de bombardement intense, une brèche est ouverte dans les murailles. Simultanément, les Français partent à l'attaque des fortifications de la colline sud. Ils sont repoussés une première fois mais finissent par prendre les deux redoutes dans la nuit du 12 au 13 mai. Plus tard dans la journée, plusieurs colonnes d'assaut françaises se ruent sur la brèche et s'en emparent, puis enlèvent une seconde ligne de défense érigée par les défenseurs en arrière de la brèche. García Conde ordonne alors à ses soldats de se replier dans la citadelle [ 7 ] .

Sans état d'âme, Suchet ordonne à ses troupes de conduire la population civile sous les murs du château [ 5 ] . Les personnes qui tentent de résister sont immédiatement assassinés par les soldats français [ 7 ] . Après que le commandant espagnol ait autorisé les non-combattants à pénétrer à l'intérieur du fort, le général français fait bombarder le château à coups de mortiers et d'obusiers [ 5 ] . La plupart des 500 civils espagnols morts au cours du siège sont tués à ce moment-là [ 7 ] . Tétanisé à la vue du massacre que les obus français provoquent chez les civils comme chez les soldats [ 5 ] , García Conde capitule dans la matinée du 14 mai [ 7 ] . La reddition livre 7 000 prisonniers aux Français. Sur l'ensemble du siège, la garnison espagnole a perdu 1 700 tués ou blessés. Parmi les trophées français figurent six généraux, 307 officiers et 105 pièces d'artillerie. Le corps de Suchet compte pour sa part 1 000 tués ou blessés environ [ 3 ] . Les vainqueurs libèrent en outre des geôles de Lérida 33 officiers français de l'armée de Catalogne [ 8 ] . Les prises de guerre comprennent aussi 1 500 000 cartouches, dix drapeaux et d'importantes quantités de poudre. Le même jour, Suchet écrit à Napoléon : « les Aigles triomphantes de Votre Majesté planent sur la ville et les redoutables châteaux de Lerida » [ 9 ] .

Pour Suchet, la prise de Lérida marque le début d'une remarquable série de victoires. Un jour après la chute de la ville, le III e corps met ainsi le siège devant Mequinenza qui capitule le 5 juin 1810 [ 5 ] , [ 10 ] . Le siège de Tortose s'achève le 2 janvier 1811 par la capitulation du général Conde de Alacha Lilli, livrant aux Français 3 974 prisonniers, 182 canons et neuf drapeaux [ 10 ] , [ 11 ] . En mai 1811, Suchet poursuit sur sa lancée en se portant à l'assaut de Tarragone. Lors d'un assaut général français de grande ampleur le 28 juin, le général Contreras est capturé et sa garnison anéantie. Pour cette victoire, Napoléon élève Suchet à la dignité de maréchal d'Empire [ 12 ] , [ 13 ] .

Le 25 octobre 1811, à l'issue de la bataille de Sagonte, dont Suchet ressort une nouvelle fois vainqueur, la forteresse de Sagonte hisse le drapeau blanc [ 14 ] . Cette suite ininterrompue de succès est couronnée par la prise de Valence qui se rend le 9 janvier 1812 avec le capitaine général Joaquín Blake y Joyes et 16 270 soldats espagnols [ 15 ] , [ 16 ] . Peu après, les forteresses de Dénia et de Peníscola se soumettent à leur tour, faisant de Suchet le maître de toute la province de Valence [ 17 ] .


Contents

The Peninsular War [a] was a military conflict for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars, waged between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom and Portugal. It started when French and Spanish armies, then allied, occupied Portugal in 1807, and escalated in 1808 when France turned on Spain, its former ally. The war on the peninsula lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, and is regarded as one of the first wars of national liberation, and significant for the emergence of large-scale guerrilla warfare. British and Portuguese forces eventually secured Portugal, using it as a safe position from which to launch campaigns against the French army, while both Spanish and Portuguese guerrillas weakened the occupying forces.

The Peninsular War overlaps with what the Spanish-speaking world calls the Guerra de la Independencia Española (Spanish War of Independence), which began with the Dos de Mayo Uprising on 2 May 1808 and ended on 17 April 1814. Although Spain had been in upheaval since at least the Mutiny of Aranjuez (March 1808), May 1808 marks the start of the Spanish War of Independence. The French occupation destroyed the Spanish administration, which fragmented into quarrelling provincial juntas. In 1810, a reconstituted national government, the Cádiz Cortes—effectively a government-in-exile—fortified itself in Cádiz but could not raise effective armies because it was besieged by up to 70,000 French troops. The combined efforts of regular and irregular forces throughout the peninsula prevented Napoleon's marshals from subduing the rebellious Spanish provinces, and the war continued through years of stalemate. Ώ]

The final stages of the Peninsular War were fought on French soil, as the French army was pushed further back across the Pyrenees.


Siege of Lerida, 15 April-14 May 1810 - History

Louis-Gabriel Suchet, Duc d'Albuféra, Marshal (1811)

(Born Lyon, 1770 - Died Marseille, 1826)

Rather than going into the family silk business, Suchet enlists in the cavalry of the National Guard in September 1793. During the siege of Toulon, he captures the English general O'Meara and meets Bonaparte.

Suchet joins the Corsican general in 1796 for the Italian campaign. A major under Masséna's orders, he takes an active part in the battles of Dego, Lodi, Rivoli, Castiglione, Bassano and Arcola, but he is wounded at Cerea.

In 1798, Suchet fights under Brune during the short Swiss campaign. He is the one who presents the enemy flags to the Directory. Promoted to brigadier general, Suchet becomes Brune's chief of staff in the Army of Italy. He then befriends Joubert, Brune's successor, who appoints him major general and chief of staff in July 1799. When Joubert is killed at Novi, on August 15, 1799, Suchet takes command until Masséna's arrival. Suchet then wins fame during the march on Alessandria.

In 1802, Suchet is inspector general of the infantry, then in command of a division of the Boulogne camp, which wins fame during the Austrian and Prussian campaigns. Having received the title of count in March 1808, he arrives in Spain late that year. After the siege of Saragossa, in April 1809, he is put at the head of the Army of Aragon and subjugates the area. In June 1809, he defeats general Blake, then O'Donnell at Lerida in May 1810.

Napoleon promotes him to marshal on July 8, 1811. In January 1812, he receives the title of Duc d'Albufera and becomes governor of the Valencia region. After Joseph is defeated at Vitoria on June 21, 1813, Suchet retires to Barcelona, where the army of Catalonia is joined to his. In November 1813, he replaces Bessières as colonel-general of the Guard.

In March 1814, Ferdinand VII is reinstated and Suchet returns to France. On April 14, having reached Narbonne, he rallies to the Restoration. Louis XVIII names him military commander, then peer of France on June 4, 1814.

Suchet returns under Napoleon's orders when the latter comes back from Elba. He defends the Italian border. Entrenched in Lyon when Louis XVIII is reinstated, he surrenders honorably and retires. On March 5, 1819, Suchet is once again made peer of France. Already ill, he is unable to attend Charles X's coronation. He dies in January 1826.


Military conflicts similar to or like Siege of Cádiz

Part of an unsuccessful manoeuvre by an Anglo-Iberian force to break the French siege of Cádiz during the Peninsular War. During the battle, a single British division defeated two French divisions and captured a regimental eagle. Wikipedia

The following table shows the sequence of events of the Peninsular War (1807–1814). It includes major battles, smaller actions, uprisings, sieges and other related events that took place during that period. Wikipedia

The military conflict fought by Spain and Portugal, assisted by the United Kingdom, against the invading and occupying forces of France for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. Considered to overlap with the Spanish War of Independence. Wikipedia

Battle during the Peninsular War. A mixed British, Spanish and Portuguese corps engaged elements of the French Armée du Midi (Army of the South) at the small Spanish village of Albuera, about 20 km south of the frontier fortress-town of Badajoz, Spain. Wikipedia

Imperial French force commanded by General Milhaud fought a Spanish corps led by General Blake. When the Spanish commander allowed his forces to get spread out, Milhaud attacked with his cavalry and crushed Blake's vanguard with heavy losses. Wikipedia

The following list of Spanish general officers (Peninsular War) lists the generals and other general officers who served in the Army of Spain during the Peninsular War (1808–1814). The rank given refers to the ones held until the end of the war in 1814. Wikipedia

Spanish general in the Spanish War of Independence and later viceroy of New Spain from September 14, 1810 to March 4, 1813, during the first phase of the Mexican War of Independence. Venegas began studies for a literary career, but gave them up to serve in the military. Wikipedia

Anglo-Portuguese Army, first led by William Carr Beresford and later commanded by Arthur Wellesley, the Viscount Wellington, besiege a French garrison under Armand Philippon at Badajoz, Spain. After failing to force a surrender, Wellington withdrew his army when the French mounted a successful relief effort by combining the armies of Marshals Nicolas Soult and Auguste Marmont. Wikipedia

The Siege of Valencia from 3 November 1811 to 9 January 1812, saw Marshal Louis Gabriel Suchet's French Army of Aragon besiege Captain General Joaquín Blake y Joyes' forces in the city of Valencia, Spain during the Peninsular War. The 20,000 to 30,000 French troops compelled 16,000 Spanish soldiers to surrender at the conclusion of the siege, although another 7,000 Spaniards escaped from the trap. Wikipedia

Final battle fought on Spanish soil during the Peninsular War on 31 August 1813, as the rest of the War would be fought on French soil. The Spanish Army of Galicia, led by Manuel Freire, turned back Marshal Nicolas Soult's last major offensive against the army of Britain's Marquess of Wellington. Wikipedia

Imperial French army under Jean François Leval laid siege to an Anglo-Spanish garrison led by Francisco Copons. Despite the advice of British Colonel John Byrne Skerrett to evacuate the town, Copons decided to hold out. Wikipedia

At the Battle of Vitoria (21 June 1813) a British, Portuguese and Spanish army under General the Marquess of Wellington broke the French army under King Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan near Vitoria in Spain, eventually leading to victory in the Peninsular War. In July 1812, after the Battle of Salamanca, the French had evacuated Madrid, which Wellington's army entered on 12 August 1812. Wikipedia

The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America during the early 19th century. With the aim of political independence, these began shortly after the French invasion of Spain in 1807 during Europe's Napoleonic Wars. Wikipedia

Fought just outside the town of Talavera de la Reina, Spain some 120 km southwest of Madrid, during the Peninsular War. Anglo-Spanish army under Sir Arthur Wellesley combined with a Spanish army under General Cuesta in operations against French-occupied Madrid. Wikipedia

The part of Spain loyal to Joseph I during the Peninsular War after the country was partially occupied by French forces. Considered a client state of the First French Empire. Wikipedia

Spanish military officer who served during the Peninsular War (Guerra de la Independencia Española – the Spanish War of Independence). He rose through the Spanish army's ranks to become Captain General of Andalusia. Wikipedia

The following list of French general officers (Peninsular War) lists the générals (général de brigade and général de division) and maréchals dɾmpire, that is, the French general officers who served in the First French Empire's Grande Armée in Spain and Portugal during the Peninsular War (1808–1814). The rank given refers to that held until 1814. Wikipedia

At the Siege of Burgos, from 19 September to 21 October 1812, the Anglo-Portuguese Army led by General Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Wellington tried to capture the castle of Burgos from its French garrison under the command of General of Brigade Jean-Louis Dubreton. The French repulsed every attempt to seize the fortress, resulting in Wellington's withdrawal. Wikipedia

Imperial French division from Nicolas Soult's army attacked a Spanish division belonging to Manuel Alberto Freire de Andrade y Armijo's Army of Murcia. The French division, led by Nicolas Godinot, defeated Joseph Oɽonnell's Spanish division with heavy losses. Wikipedia

Decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1810, and ended on December 31, 1819. Opened with a very hostile political climate around the world. Wikipedia

City and port in southwestern Spain. Capital of the Province of Cádiz, one of eight that make up the autonomous community of Andalusia. Wikipedia

Anglo-Portuguese-Spanish army commanded by Arthur Wellesley, Marquess Wellington. After its failed Siege of Burgos, the 35,000-man Allied army withdrew to the west, pursued by Souham's 53,000 French soldiers. Wikipedia

The Siege of Astorga of 1812 took place between 29 June and 19 August 1812, at Astorga, León, Castile-León, Spain, during the Peninsular War. On 29 June, the Spanish troops of Lieutenant-General Francisco Gómez de Terán y Negrete, Marquess of Portago, started the operations, and laid siege to Astorga. Wikipedia

Battle of the Peninsular War between Spanish and French armies. Outnumbered French force routed and nearly destroyed the Spanish Army of Extremadura. Wikipedia

800-man Imperial French garrison directed by Lieutenant Colonel Duchemin defend three fortified convents in the city of Salamanca against the 48,000-strong Anglo-Allied army led by Arthur Wellesley, Lord Wellington. Unsuccessful attempt to relieve the garrison. Wikipedia

Skirmish that occurred during the Peninsular War period of the Napoleonic Wars. The first significant battle for the new army of 65,000 men controlled by Marshal André Masséna, as the French prepared for their third invasion of Portugal. Wikipedia

Civil war in Spain from 1833 to 1840, the first of three Carlist Wars. Fought between two factions over the succession to the throne and the nature of the Spanish monarchy: the conservative supporters of the late king's brother, Carlos de Borbón , became known as Carlists (carlistas), while the progressive supporters of the regent, Maria Christina, acting for Isabella II of Spain, were called Liberals (liberales), cristinos or isabelinos. Wikipedia

In the Battle of Maguilla (11 June 1812) a British cavalry brigade led by Major General John Slade attacked a similar-sized French cavalry brigade commanded by General of Brigade Charles Lallemand. Initial success, routing the French dragoons and capturing a number of them. Wikipedia

In the Battles of San Millán and Osma (18 June 1813) two divisions of the Allied army of Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Wellington clashed with two divisions of King Joseph Bonaparte's Imperial French army in northeast Spain. At San Millán de San Zadornil, Charles Alten's Light Division mauled Antoine Louis Popon de Maucune's French division. Wikipedia

Fought on 11 August 1809 during the Peninsular War between Sébastiani's IV Corps of the French Peninsular Army, which had withdrawn from the Battle of Talavera to defend Madrid, and the Spanish Army of La Mancha under General Venegas. After the decisive charges of Polish uhlans, the battle resulted in a French victory. Wikipedia


Watch the video: Medieval II total war: Online Battle - Scenario - Reconquista Siege, Moors vs Spain V3 (June 2022).

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